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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Aira (Japan) Explosions with ejecta and ash plumes continue weekly during January-June 2019

Agung (Indonesia) Continued explosions with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta, February-May 2019

Kerinci (Indonesia) Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, February-May 2019.

Suwanosejima (Japan) Small ash plumes continued during January through June 2019

Great Sitkin (United States) Small steam explosions in early June 2019

Ibu (Indonesia) Frequent ash plumes and small lava flows active in the crater through June 2019

Ebeko (Russia) Continuing frequent moderate explosions though May 2019; ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Weak thermal anomalies and moderate Strombolian-type eruptions in September 2018-June 2019

Yasur (Vanuatu) Strong thermal activity with incandescent ejecta continues, February-May 2019

Bagana (Papua New Guinea) Infrequent thermal anomalies, no ash emissions, February-May 2019

Ambae (Vanuatu) Declining thermal activity and no explosions during February-May 2019

Sangay (Ecuador) Explosion on 26 March 2019; activity from 10 May through June produced ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows



Aira (Japan) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions with ejecta and ash plumes continue weekly during January-June 2019

Sakurajima rises from Kagoshima Bay, which fills the Aira Caldera near the southern tip of Japan's Kyushu Island. Frequent explosive and occasional effusive activity has been ongoing for centuries. The Minamidake summit cone has been the location of persistent activity since 1955; the Showa crater on its E flank has also been intermittently active since 2006. Numerous explosions and ash-bearing emissions have been occurring each month at either Minamidake or Showa crater since the latest eruptive episode began in late March 2017. This report covers ongoing activity from January through June 2019; the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides regular reports on activity, and the Tokyo VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center) issues tens of reports each month about the frequent ash plumes.

From January to June 2019, ash plumes and explosions were usually reported multiple times each week. The quietest month was June with only five eruptive events; the most active was March with 29 (table 21). Ash plumes rose from a few hundred meters to 3,500 m above the summit during the period. Large blocks of incandescent ejecta traveled as far as 1,700 m from the Minamidake crater during explosions in February and April. All the activity originated in the Minamidake crater; the adjacent Showa crater only had a mild thermal anomaly and fumarole throughout the period. Satellite imagery identified thermal anomalies inside the Minamidake crater several times each month.

Table 21. Monthly summary of eruptive events recorded at Sakurajima's Minamidake crater in Aira caldera, January-June 2019. The number of events that were explosive in nature are in parentheses. No events were recorded at the Showa crater during this time. Data courtesy of JMA (January to June 2019 monthly reports).

Month Ash emissions (explosive) Max. plume height above crater Max. ejecta distance from crater
Jan 2019 8 (6) 2.1 km 1.1 km
Feb 2019 15 (11) 2.3 km 1.7 km
Mar 2019 29 (12) 3.5 km 1.3 km
Apr 2019 10 (5) 2.2 km 1.7 km
May 2019 15 (9) 2.9 km 1.3 km
Jun 2019 5 (2) 2.2 km 1.3 km

There were eight eruptive events reported by JMA during January 2019 at the Minamidake summit crater of Sakurajima. They occurred on 3, 6, 7, 9, 17, and 19 January (figure 76). Ash plume heights ranged from 600 to 2,100 m above the summit. The largest explosion, on 9 January, generated an ash plume that rose 2,100 m above the summit crater and drifted E. In addition, incandescent ejecta was sent 800-1,100 m from the summit. Incandescence was visible at the summit on most clear nights. During an overflight on 18 January no significant changes were noted at the crater (figure 77). Infrared thermal imaging done on 29 January indicated a weak thermal anomaly in the vicinity of the Showa crater on the SE side of Minamidake crater. The Kagoshima Regional Meteorological Observatory (KRMO) (11 km WSW) recorded ashfall there during four days of the month. Satellite imagery indicated thermal anomalies inside Minamidake on 7 and 27 January (figure 77).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Incandescent ejecta and ash emissions characterized activity from Sakurajima volcano at Aira during January 2019. Left: A webcam image showed incandescent ejecta on the flanks on 9 January 2019, courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, January 2019). Right: An ash plume rose hundreds of meters above the summit, likely also on 9 January, posted on 10 January 2019, courtesy of Mike Day.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. The summit of Sakurajima consists of the larger Minamidake crater and the smaller Showa crater on the E flank. Left: The Minamidake crater at the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 18 January 2019 seen in an overflight courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, March 2019). Right: Two areas of thermal anomaly were visible in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 27 January 2019. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity increased during February 2019, with 15 eruptive events reported on days 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 17, 22, 24, and 27. Ash plume heights ranged from 600-2,300 m above the summit, and ejecta was reported 300 to 1,700 m from the crater in various events (figure 78). KRMO reported two days of ashfall during February. Satellite imagery identified thermal anomalies at the crater on 6 and 26 February, and ash plumes on 21 and 26 February (figure 79).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. An explosion from Sakurajima at Aira on 7 February 2019 sent ejecta up to 1,700 m from the Minamidake summit crater. Courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, February 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Thermal anomalies and ash emissions were captured in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 6, 21, and 26 February 2019 originating from Sakurajima volcano at Aira. Top: Thermal anomalies within the summit crater were visible underneath steam and ash plumes on 6 and 26 February (closeup of bottom right photo). Bottom: Ash emissions on 21 and 26 February drifted SE from the volcano. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The number of eruptive events continued to increase during March 2019; there were 29 events reported on numerous days (figures 80 and 81). An explosion on 14 March produced an ash plume that rose 3,500 m above the summit and drifted E. It also produced ejecta that landed 800-1,100 m from the crater. During an overflight on 26 March a fumarole was the only activity in Showa crater. KRMO reported 14 days of ashfall during the month. Satellite imagery identified an ash plume on 13 March and a thermal anomaly on 18 March (figure 82).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. A large ash emission from Sakurajima volcano at Aira was photographed by a tourist on the W flank and posted on 1 March 2019. Courtesy of Kratü.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. An ash plume from Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 18 March 2019 produced enough ashfall to disrupt the trains in the nearby city of Kagoshima according to the photographer. Image taken from about 20 km away. Courtesy of Tim Board.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. An ash plume drifted SE from the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 13 March (left) and a thermal anomaly was visible inside the Minamidake crater on 18 March 2019 (right). "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A decline in activity to only ten eruptive events on days 7, 13, 17, 22, and 25 was reported by JMA for April 2019. An explosion on 7 April sent ejecta up to 1,700 m from the crater. Another explosion on 13 April produced an ash plume that rose 2,200 m above the summit. Most of the eruptive events at Sakurajima last for less than 30 minutes; on 22 April two events lasted for almost an hour each producing ash plumes that rose 1,400 m above the summit. Ashfall at KRMO was reported during seven days in April. Two distinct thermal anomalies were visible inside the Minamidake crater on both 12 and 27 April (figure 83).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Two thermal anomalies were present inside Minamidake crater at the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 12 (left) and 27 (right) April 2019. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

There were 15 eruptive events during May 2019. An event that lasted for two hours on 12 May produced an ash plume that rose 2,900 m from the summit and drifted NE (figure 84). The Meteorological Observatory reported 14 days with ashfall during the month. Two thermal anomalies were present in satellite imagery in the Minamidake crater on both 17 and 22 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. An ash plume rose 2,900 m above the summit of Sakurajima at Aira on 12 May 2019 (left); incandescent ejecta went 1,300 m from the summit crater on 13 May. Courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, May 2019).

During June 2019 five eruptive events were reported, on 11, 13, and 24 June; the event on 11 June lasted for almost two hours, sent ash 2,200 m above the summit, and produced ejecta that landed up to 1,100 m from the crater (figure 85). Five days of ashfall were reported by KRMO.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. A large ash plume on 11 June 2019 rose 2,200 m above the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira. Courtesy of Aone Wakatsuki.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Mike Day, Minnesota, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/MikeDaySMM, photo at https://twitter.com/MikeDaySMM/status/1083489400451989505/photo/1); Kratü, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/TalesOfKratue, photo at https://twitter.com/TalesOfKratue/status/1101469595414589441/photo/1); Tim Board, Japan, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/Hawkworld_, photo at https://twitter.com/Hawkworld_/status/1107789108754038789); Aone Wakatsuke, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/AoneWakatsuki, photo at https://twitter.com/AoneWakatsuki/status/1138420031258210305/photo/3).


Agung (Indonesia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Agung

Indonesia

8.343°S, 115.508°E; summit elev. 2997 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued explosions with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta, February-May 2019

After a large, deadly explosive and effusive eruption during 1963-64, Indonesia's Mount Agung on Bali remained quiet until a new eruption began in November 2017 (BGVN 43:01). Lava emerged into the summit crater at the end of November and intermittent ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit through the end of the year. Activity continued throughout 2018 with explosions that produced ash plumes rising multiple kilometers above the summit, and the slow effusion of the lava within the summit crater (BGVN 43:08, 44:02). Information about the ongoing eruptive episode comes from Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), also known as the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and multiple sources of satellite data. This report covers the ongoing eruption from February through May 2019.

Intermittent but increasingly frequent and intense explosions with ash emissions and incandescent ejecta characterized activity at Agung during February through May 2019. During February, explosions were reported three times; events on seven days in March were documented with ash plumes and ashfall in surrounding villages. Five significant events occurred during April; two involved incandescent ejecta that traveled several kilometers from the summit, and ashfall tens of kilometers from the volcano. Most of the five significant events reported in May involved incandescent ejecta and ashfall in adjacent villages; air traffic was disrupted during the 24 May event. Ash plumes in May reached altitudes over 7 km multiple times. Thermal activity increased steadily during the period, according to both the MIROVA project (figure 44) and MODVOLC thermal alert data. MAGMA Indonesia reported at the end of May 2019 that the volume of lava within the summit crater remained at about 25 million m3; satellite information indicated continued thermal activity within the crater. Alert Level III (of four levels) remained in effect throughout the period with a 4 km exclusion radius around the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Thermal activity at Agung from 4 September 2018 through May 2019 was variable. The increasing frequency and intensity of thermal events was apparent from February-May. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Steam plumes rose 30-300 m high daily during February 2019. The Agung Volcano Observatory (AVO) and PVMBG issued a VONA on 7 February (UTC) reporting an ash plume, although it was not visible due to meteoric cloud cover. Incandescence, however, was observed at the summit from webcams in both Rendang and Karangasem City (16 km SE). The seismic event associated with the explosion lasted for 97 seconds. A similar event on 13 February was also obscured by clouds but produced a seismic event that lasted for 3 minutes and 40 seconds, and ashfall was reported in the village of Bugbug, about 20 km SE. On 22 February a gray ash plume rose 700 m from the summit during a seismic event that lasted for 6 minutes and 20 seconds (figure 45). The Darwin VAAC reported the plume visible in satellite imagery moving W at 4.3 km altitude. It dissipated after a few hours, but a hotspot remained visible about 10 hours later.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. An ash plume rose from the summit of Agung on 22 February 2019, viewed from the Besakih temple, 7 km SW of the summit. Courtesy of PunapiBali.

Persistent steam plumes rose 50-500 m from the summit during March 2019. An explosion on 4 March was recorded for just under three minutes and produced ashfall in Besakih (7 km SW); no ash plume was observed due to fog. A short-lived ash plume rose to 3.7 km altitude and drifted SE on 8 March (UTC) 2019. The seismic event lasted for just under 4 minutes. Ash emissions were reported on 15 and 17 March to 4.3 and 3.7 km altitude, respectively, drifting W (figure 46). Ashfall from the 15 March event spread NNW and was reported in the villages of Kubu (6 km N), Tianyar (14 km NNW), Ban, Kadundung, and Sukadana. MAGMA Indonesia noted that two explosions on the morning of 17 March (local time) produced gray plumes; the first sent a plume to 500 m above the summit drifting E and lasted for about 40 seconds, while the second plume a few hours later rose 600 m above the crater and lasted for 1 minute and 16 seconds. On 18 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W and NW. An event on 20 March was measured only seismically by PVMBG because fog prevented observations. An eruption on 28 March produced an ash plume 2 km high that drifted W and NW. The seismic signal for this event lasted for about two and a half minutes. The Darwin VAAC reported the ash plume at 5.5 km altitude, dissipating quickly to the NW. No ash was visible four hours later, but a thermal anomaly remained at the summit (figure 47). Ashfall was reported in nearby villages.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Ash plumes from Agung on 15 (left) and 17 (right) March 2019 resulted in ashfall in communities 10-20 km from the volcano. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia (Information on G. Agung Eruption, 15 March 2019 and Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release March 17, 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. A thermal anomaly was visible through thick cloud cover at the summit of Agung on 29 March 2019 less than 24 hours after a gray ash plume was reported 2,000 m above the summit. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The first explosion of April 2019 occurred on the 3rd (UTC); PVMBG reported the dense gray ash plume 2 km above the summit drifting W. A few hours later the Darwin VAAC raised the altitude to 6.1 km based on infrared temperatures in satellite imagery. The seismic signal lasted for three and a half minutes and the explosion was heard at the PGA Post in Rendang (12 km SW). Incandescent material fell within a radius of 2-3 km, mainly on the S flank (figure 48). Ashfall was reported in the villages of Telungbuana, Badeg, Besakih, Pempatan, Teges, and Puregai on the W and S flanks (figure 49). An explosion on 11 April also produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit and drifted W. A hotspot remained about six hours later after the ash dissipated.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Incandescent ejecta appeared on the flanks of Agung after an eruption on 4 April 2019 (local time) as viewed from the observation post in Rendang (8 km SW). Courtesy of Jamie Sincioco.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Ashfall in a nearby town dusted mustard plants on 4 April 2019 from an explosion at Agung the previous day. Courtesy of Pantau.com (Photo: Antara / Nyoman Hendra).

PVMBG reported an eruption visible in the webcam early on 21 April (local time) that rose to 5.5 km altitude and drifted SW. The ash spread W and S and ash fell around Besakih (7 km SW), Rendang (8 km SW), Klungkung (25 km S), Gianyar (20 km WSW), Bangli (17 km WNW), Tabanan (50 km WSW), and at the Ngurah Rai-Denpasar Airport (60 km SW). About 15 hours later a new explosion produced a dense gray ash plume that rose to 3 km above the summit and produced incandescent ejecta in all directions as far as 3 km away (figure 50). The ash spread to the S and ashfall was reported in Besakih, Rendang, Sebudi (6 km SW), and Selat (12 km SSW). Both of the explosions were heard in Rendang and Batulompeh. The incandescent ejecta from the explosions remained within the 4-km exclusion zone. A satellite image on 23 April showed multiple thermal anomalies within the summit crater (figure 51). A dense gray plume drifted E from Agung on 29 April (30 April local time) at 4.6 km altitude. It was initially reported by ground observers, but was also visible in multispectral satellite imagery for about six hours before dissipating.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. An explosion at Agung on 21 April 2019 sent incandescent eject 3,000 m from the summit. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia (Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release April 21, 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Multiple thermal anomalies were still present within the summit crater of Agung on 23 April 2019 after two substantial explosions produced ash and incandescent ejecta around the summit two days earlier. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

PVMBG reported an eruption on 3 May 2019 that was recorded on a seismogram with a signal that lasted for about a minute. Satellite imagery reported by the Darwin VAAC showed a growing hotspot and possible ash near the summit at 4.3 km altitude moving NE. A few days later, on 6 May, a gray ash plume rose to 5.2 km altitude and drifted slowly W before dissipating; it was accompanied by a seismic signal that lasted for about two minutes. Explosions on 12 and 18 May produced significant amounts of incandescent ejecta (figure 52). The seismic signal for the 12 May event lasted for about two minutes; no plume was observed due to fog, but incandescent ejecta was visible on the flanks and the explosion was heard at Rendang. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume from the explosion on 17 May (18 May local time) at 6.1 km altitude in satellite imagery moving E. They revised the altitude a short while later to 7.6 km based on IR temperature and movement; the plume drifted N, NE, and E in light and variable winds. A few hours after that it was moving NE at 7.6 km altitude and SE at 5.5 km altitude; this lasted for about 12 hours until it dissipated. Ashfall was reported in villages downwind including Cutcut, Tongtongan, Bonyoh (20 km WNW), and Temakung.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Explosions on 12 (left) and 18 (right) May (local time) 2019 produced substantial ejecta on the flanks of Agung visible from a distance of 10 km or more in PVMBG webcams. The ash plume from the 18 May event resulted in ashfall in numerous communities downwind. Courtesy of PVMBG (Information Eruption G. Agung, May 13, 2019, Information Eruption G. Agung, May 18, 2019).

The initial explosion on 18 May was captured by a webcam at a nearby resort and sent incandescent ejecta hundreds of meters down the NE flank within 20 seconds (figure 53). Satellite imagery on 3, 8, 13, and 18 May indicated multiple thermal anomalies growing stronger at the summit. All of the images were captured within 24 hours of an explosive event reported by PVMBG (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The 18 May 2019 explosion at Agung produced an ash plume that rose to over 7 km altitude and large bombs of incandescent material that traveled hundreds of meters down the NE flank within the first 20 seconds of the explosion. Images taken from a private webcam located 12 km NE. Courtesy of Volcanoverse, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Satellite images from 3, 8, 13, and 18 May 2019 at Agung showed persistent and increasing thermal anomalies within the summit crater. All images were captured within 24 hours of explosions reported by PVMBG. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

PVMBG issued a VONA on 24 May 2019 reporting a new ash emission. They indicated that incandescent fragments were ejected 2.5-3 km in all directions from the summit, and the seismic signal lasted for four and a half minutes (figure 55). A dense gray ash plume was observed from Tulamben on the NE flank rising 2 km above the summit. Satellite imagery indicated that the plume drifted SW and ashfall was reported in the villages of Besakih, Pempatan, Menanga, Sebudi, Muncan, Amerta Bhuana, Nongan, Rendang, and at the Ngurah Rai Airport in Denpassar. Additionally, ashfall was reported in the districts of Tembuku, Bangli, and Susut (20 km SW). The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery at 4.6 km altitude along with a thermal anomaly and incandescent lava visible in webcam imagery. The remains of the ash plume were about 170 km S of the airport in Denpasar (60 km SW) and had nearly dissipated 18 hours after the event. According to a news article several flights to and from Australia were cancelled or diverted, though the International Gusti Ngurah Rai (IGNR) airport was not closed. On 31 May another large explosion produced the largest ash plume of the report period, rising more than 2 km above the summit (figure 56). The Darwin VAAC reported its altitude as 8.2 km drifting ESE visible in satellite data. It split into two plumes, one drifted E at 8.2 km and the other ESE at 6.1 km altitude, dissipating after about 20 hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. A large explosion at Agung on 24 May 2019 produced incandescent ejecta that covered all the flanks and dispersed ash to many communities to the SW. Courtesy of PVMBG (Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release 24 May 2019 20:38 WIB, Kasbani, Ir., M.Sc.).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. An explosion at Agung on 31 May 2019 sent an ash plume to 8.2 km altitude, the highest for the report period. Courtesy of Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks extend to the coast. The summit area extends 1.5 km E-W, with the high point on the W and a steep-walled 800-m-wide crater on the E. The Pawon cone is located low on the SE flank. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded in historical time. The 1963-64 eruption, one of the largest in the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall along with devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); The Jakarta Post, Mount Agung eruption disrupts Australian flights, (URL: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2019/05/25/mount-agung-eruption-disrupts-australian-flights.html); PunapiBali (URL: http://punapibali.com/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/punapibali, image at https://twitter.com/punapibali/status/1098869352588288000/photo/1); Jamie S. Sincioco, Phillipines (URL: Twitter: https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco. Image at https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco/status/1113765842557104130/photo/1); Pantau.com (URL: https://www.pantau.com/berita/erupsi-gunung-agung-sebagian-wilayah-bali-terpapar-hujan-abu?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter); Volcanoverse (URL: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCi3T_esus8Sr9I-3W5teVQQ); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN ).


Kerinci (Indonesia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kerinci

Indonesia

1.697°S, 101.264°E; summit elev. 3800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, February-May 2019.

Frequently active, Indonesia's Mount Kerinci on Sumatra has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838. Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, usually multiple times per month, have characterized activity since April 2018. Similar activity continued during February-May 2019, the period covered in this report with information provided primarily by the Indonesian volcano monitoring agency, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), MAGMA Indonesia, notices from the Darwin Volcano Ash Advisory Center (Darwin VAAC), and satellite data. PVMBG has maintained an Alert Level II (of 4) at Kerinci for several years.

On 13 February 2019 the Kerinci Volcano Observatory (KVO), part of PVMBG, noted a brownish-white ash emission that was drifting NE about 400 m above the summit. The seismicity during the event was dominated by continuous volcanic tremor. A brown ash emission was reported on 7 March 2019 that rose to 3.9 km altitude and drifted NE. Ash also drifted 1,300 m down the SE flank. Another ash plume the next morning drifted W at 4.5 km altitude, according to KVO. On 10, 11, and 13 March KVO reported brown ash plumes drifting NE from the summit at about 4.0-4.3 km altitude. The Darwin VAAC observed continuous ash emissions in satellite imagery on 15 March drifting W at 4.3 m altitude that dissipated after about 3 hours (figure 10). A gray ash emission was reported on 19 March about 600 m above the summit drifting NE; local news media noted that residents of Kayo Aro reported emissions on both 18 and 19 March (figure 11). An ash emission appeared in satellite imagery on 25 March (figure 10). On 30 March the observatory reported two ash plumes; a brown emission at 0351 UTC and a gray emission at 0746 UTC that both drifted NE at about 4.4 km altitude and dissipated within a few hours. PVMBG reported another gray ash plume the following day at a similar altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Kerinci from 15 (left) and 25 (right) March 2019 showed evidence of ash plumes rising from the summit. Kerinci's summit crater is about 500 m wide. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Dense ash plumes from Kerinci were reported by local news media on 18 and 19 March 2019. Courtesy of Nusana Jambi.

Activity continued during April with a brown ash emission reported on 3 April by several different agencies; the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG daily reports noted that the plume was about 500 m above the summit (4.3 km altitude) drifting NE. KVO observed two brown ash emissions on 13 April (UTC) that rose to 4.2 km altitude and drifted NE. Satellite imagery showed minor ash emissions from the summit on 14 April; steam plumes 100-500 m above the summit characterized activity for the remainder of April (figure 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. A dilute ash emission rose from the summit of Kerinci on 14 April 2019 (left); only steam emissions were present on a clear 29 April in Sentinel-2 imagery (right). "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Ashfall on the NE and S flanks within 7 km of the volcano was reported on 2 May 2019. According to a news article, at least five villages were affected late on 2 May, including Tanjung Bungo, Sangir, Sangir Tengah, Sungai Rumpun, and Bendung Air (figures 13 and 14). The smell of sulfur was apparent in the villages. Brown ash emissions were observed on 3 and 4 May that rose to 4.6 and 4.1 km altitude and drifted SE. The Darwin VAAC reported an emission on 5 May, based on a pilot report, that rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted NE for about an hour before dissipating. A brown ash emission on 10 May rose 700 m above the summit and drifted SE. Satellite imagery captured ash emissions from the summit on 14 and 24 May (figure 15). For the remainder of the month, 300-700-m-high dense steam plumes were noted daily until PVMBG reported white and brown plumes on 26 and 27 May rising 500-1,000 m above the summit. Although thermal anomalies were not reported during the period, persistent weak SO2 emissions were identified in TROPOMI instrument satellite data multiple times per month (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Ashfall was reported from five villages on the flanks of Kerinci on 2 May 2019. Courtesy of Uzone.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. An ash plume at Kerinci rose hundreds of meters on 2 May 2019; ashfall was reported in several nearby villages. Courtesy of Kerinci Time.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Ash emissions from Kerinci were captured in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 14 (left) and 24 (right) May 2019. The summit crater is about 500 m wide. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Weak SO2 anomalies from Kerinci emissions were captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite multiple times each month from February to May 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Geologic Background. Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Nuansa Jambi, Informasi Utama Jambi: (URL: https://nuansajambi.com/2019/03/20/gunung-kerinci-semburkan-asap-tebal/); Kerinci Time (URL: https://kerincitime.co.id/gunung-kerinci-semburkan-abu-vulkanik.html); Uzone.id (URL: https://news.uzone.id/gunung-kerinci-erupsi-5-desa-tertutup-abu-tebal).


Suwanosejima (Japan) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Suwanosejima

Japan

29.638°N, 129.714°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small ash plumes continued during January through June 2019

Suwanosejima is an active volcanic island south of Japan in the Ryuku islands with recent activity centered at Otake crater. The current eruption began in October 2004 and activity has mostly consisted of small ash plumes, ballistic ejecta, and visible incandescence at night. This report summarizes activity during January through June 2019 and is based on reports by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), and various satellite data.

Thermal activity recorded by the MIROVA system was low through January and February after a decline in November (figure 36), shown in Sentined-2 thermal infrared imagery as originating at a vent in the Otake crater (figure 37). During January an explosive event was observed at 1727 on the 3rd, producing a gray plume that rose 600 m above the crater. A white gas-and-steam plume rose to 1.5 km above the crater and nighttime incandescence was observed throughout the month. Reduced activity continued through February with no reported explosive eruptions and light gray plumes up to 900 m above the crater. Incandescence continued to be recorded at night using a sensitive surveillance camera.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared data at Suwanosejima during September 2018 through June 2019. There was reduced activity in 2019 with periods of more frequent anomalies during March and June. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. A Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image shows Suwanosejima with the active Otake crater in the center with elevated temperatures shown as bright orange/yellow. There is a light area next to the vent that may be a gas plume. False color (urban) satellite image (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

There was an increase in thermal energy detected by the MIROVA system in mid-March and there was a MODVOLC thermal alert on the 15th. Occasional small explosions occurred but no larger explosive events were recorded. A white plume was noted on the 27th rising to 900 m above the crater and an event at 1048 on the 30th produced a light-gray plume that rose to 800 m. Incandescence was only observed using a sensitive camera at night (figure 38).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Incandescence from the Suwanosejima Otake crater reflecting in clouds above the volcano. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity of Suwanosejima March 2019).

No explosive events were observed through April. A white gas-and-steam plume rose to 1,200 m above the crater on the 19th and incandescence continued intermittently. Minor explosions were recorded on 5, 30, and 31 May, but no larger explosive events were observed during the month. The event on the 30th produced ash plume that reached 1.1 km above the crater. Similar activity continued through June with one explosive event occurring on the 2nd. Overall, there was a reduction in the number of ash plumes erupted during this period compared to previous months (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Observed activity at Suwanosejima for the year ending in July 2019. The black vertical bars represent steam, gas, or ash plume heights (scale in meters on the left axis), yellow diamonds represent incandescence observed in webcams, gray volcano symbols along the top are explosions accompanied by ash plumes, red volcano symbols represent large explosions with ash plumes. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity of Suwanosejima June 2019).

Geologic Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Great Sitkin (United States) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Great Sitkin

United States

52.076°N, 176.13°W; summit elev. 1740 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small steam explosions in early June 2019

The Great Sitkin volcano is located about 40 km NE of Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands and has had a few short-lived eruptions over the past 100 years. Prior to the latest activity in early June 2019 described below, small phreatic explosions occurred in June and August 2018 (BGVN 43:09). An eruption in 1974 produced a lava dome in the center of the crater. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) is the primary source of information for this September 2018-June 2019 reporting period.

Low-level unrest occurred from September 2018 through February 2019 with slightly elevated seismic activity (figure 6). Small explosions were seismically detected by AVO on 30 October, 5 and 16 November, and 11 December 2018, but they were not seen in regional infrasound data and satellite data did not show an ash cloud.

On 1, 7, and 9 June 2019, AVO reported small steam explosions as well as slightly elevated seismic activity. Steam plumes and surficial evidence of an explosion were not observed during these events. On 18 June 2019 weakly elevated surface temperatures were recorded, field crews working on Adak observed some steam emissions, and a gas flight was conducted. Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide detected above the lava dome were likely associated with the steam explosions earlier in the month (figures 7 and 8). From 23 June through the end of the month seismicity began to decline back to background levels.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. A steam plume was seen at the summit of Great Sitkin on 7 December 2018. Photo by Andy Lewis and Bob Boyd; courtesy of AVO/USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Some degassing was observed on the southern flank of the Great Sitkin during an overflight on 18 June 2019. Photo by Laura Clor; image courtesy of AVO/USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. View of Great Sitkin with white plumes rising from the summit on 20 June 2019. Photo by Laura Clor, courtesy of AVO/USGS.

Geologic Background. The Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 m. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the late-19th century.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/).


Ibu (Indonesia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ibu

Indonesia

1.488°N, 127.63°E; summit elev. 1325 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent ash plumes and small lava flows active in the crater through June 2019

Ibu volcano on Halmahera island in Indonesia began the current eruption episode on 5 April 2008. Since then, activity has largely consisted of small ash plumes with less frequent lava flows, lava dome growth, avalanches, and larger ash plumes up to 5.5 km above the crater. This report summarizes activity during December 2018 through June 2019 and is based on Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) reports by MAGMA Indonesia, reports by Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), and various satellite data.

During December PVMBG reported ash plumes ranging from 200 to 800 m above the crater. There were 11 MODVOLC thermal alerts that registered during 1-12 December. An explosion on 12 January 2019 produced an ash plume that reached 800 m above the crater and dispersed to the S (figure 15). A report released for this event by Sutopo at BNPB said that Ibu had erupted almost every day over the past three months; an example given was of activity on 10 January consisting of 80 explosions. There were four MODVOLC thermal alerts through the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. An eruption at Ibu at 1712 on 21 January 2019 produced an ash plume that rose to 800 m above the crater. Courtesy of BNPB (color adjusted).

Throughout February explosions frequently produced ash plumes as high as 800 m above the crater, and nine MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued. Daily reports showed variable plume heights of 200-800 m most days throughout the month. Wind directions varied and dispersed the plumes in all directions. A VONA released at 1850 on 6 February reported an ash plume that rose to 1,925 m altitude (around 600 m above the summit) and dispersed S. Activity continued through March with the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG reporting explosions producing ash plumes to heights of 200-800 m above the crater and dispersing in various directions. There were ten MODVOLC alerts through the month.

Similar activity continued through April, May, and June, with ash plumes reaching 200-800 m above the crater. There were 12, 6, and 15 MODVOLC Alerts in April, May, and June, respectively.

Planet Scope satellite images show activity at a two vents near the center of the crater that were producing small lava flows from February through June (figure 16). Thermal anomalies were frequent during December 2018 through June 2019 across MODVOLC, MIROVA, and Sentinel-2 infrared data (figures 17 and 18). Sentinel-2 data showed minor variation in the location of thermal anomalies within the crater, possibly indicating lava flow activity, and MIROVA data showed relatively constant activity with a few reductions in thermal activity during January and February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Planet Scope natural color satellite images showing activity in the Ibu crater during January through June 2019, with white arrows indicating sites of activity. One vent is visible in the 21 February image, and a 330-m-long (from the far side of the vent) lava flow with flow ridges had developed by 24 March. A second vent was active by 12 May with a new lava flow reaching a maximum length of 520 m. Activity was centered back at the previous vent by 23-27 June. Natural color Planet Scope Imagery, copyright 2019 Planet Labs, Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Examples of thermal activity in the Ibu crater during January through May 2019. These Sentinel-2 satellite images show variations in hot areas in the crater due to a vent producing a small lava flow. Sentinel-2 false color (urban) images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Ibu from September 2018 through June 2019. The registered energy was relatively stable through December, with breaks in January and February. Regular thermal anomalies continued with slight variation through to the end of June. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Planet Labs, Inc. (URL: https://www.planet.com/).


Ebeko (Russia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ebeko

Russia

50.686°N, 156.014°E; summit elev. 1103 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continuing frequent moderate explosions though May 2019; ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk

The Ebeko volcano, located on the northern end of the Paramushir Island in the Kuril Islands, consists of many craters, lakes, and thermal features and has been frequently erupting since late February 2017. Typical activity includes ash plumes, explosive eruptions, and gas-and-steam activity. The previous report through November 2018 (BGVN 43:12) described frequent ash explosions that sometimes caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk (7 km E). The primary source of information is the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT). This report updates the volcanic activity at Ebeko for December 2018 through May 2019.

Frequent moderate explosive activity continued after November 2018. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk observed explosions sending up ash, which drifted N, NE, and E, resulting in ash falls on Severo-Kurilsk on 28 different days between December 2018 and March 2019. On 25 December 2018 an explosion sent ash up to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km and then drifted N for about 5 km. Explosions occurring on 8-10 March 2019 sent ash up to an altitude of 4 km, resulting in ashfall on Severo-Kurilsk on 9-10 March 2019. An ash plume from these explosions rose to a height of 2.5 km and drifted to a maximum distance of 30 km ENE.

Satellite data analyzed by KVERT registered 12 thermal anomalies from December 2018 through May 2019. According to satellite data analyzed by MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), only one thermal anomaly was recorded from December 2018-May 2019, and no hotspot pixels were recognized using satellite thermal data from the MODVOLC algorithm.

Geologic Background. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak thermal anomalies and moderate Strombolian-type eruptions in September 2018-June 2019

Klyuchevskoy has had alternating eruptive and less active periods since August 2015. Activity has included lava flows, a growing cinder cone, thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam plumes, and ash explosions. Though some eruptions occur near the summit crater, major explosive and effusive eruptions have also occurred from flank craters (BGVN 42:04 and 43:05). Intermittent moderate gas-and-steam and ash emissions were previously reported from mid-February to mid-August 2018. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) is the primary source of information for this September 2018-June 2019 reporting period.

KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam activity, some of which contained a small amount of ash, and weak thermal anomalies occurred intermittently from the beginning of September 2018 through mid-April 2019. On 21-22 April 2019 webcam data showed a gas-and-steam plume extending about 160 km SE (figure 31). Moderate Strombolian-type volcanism began late April 2019 and continued intermittently through June 2019. On 11-12 June webcam data showed explosions that sent ash up to a maximum altitude of 6 km, with the resulting ash plume extending about 200 km WNW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Gas-and-steam plume containing some amount of ash rising from the summit of Klyuchevskoy on 22 April 2019. Photo by A. Klimova, courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS FEB RAS).

Thermal anomalies were noted by KVERT during two days in September 2018, six days in April 2019, eleven days in May 2019, and six days in June 2019. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed infrequent weak thermal anomalies December 2018 through early May 2019.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Yasur (Vanuatu) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Yasur

Vanuatu

19.532°S, 169.447°E; summit elev. 361 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong thermal activity with incandescent ejecta continues, February-May 2019

Yasur volcano on Tanna Island has been characterized by Strombolian activity with large incandescent bombs, frequent explosions, lava fountaining, and ash emissions for much of its known eruptive history. Melanesians from nearby islands are believed to have settled Tanna in about 400 BCE; it is now part of the nation of Vanuatu, independent since 1980. The Kwamera language (or Tannese) spoken on the SE coast of the island is thought to be the source of the name of the island. No known oral history describes volcanic activity; the first written English-language documentation of activity dates to 5 August 1774, when Captain James Cook saw "a great fire" on Tanna Island. Cook realized that it "was a Volcano which threw up vast quantities of fire and smoak and made a rumbling noise which was heard at a good distance" (The Captain Cook Society) (figure 51).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Incandescence, steam, and dark ash from Yasur fill the sky in this sketch representing Captain James Cook's landing in the 'Resolution' at Tanna Island on 5 August 1774. The form of the volcano is behind the ship, the incandescence is in the upper right next to the ship's masts. "Landing at Tanna" by William Hodges, 1775-1776, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. The Maritime Museum noted that this is one of a group of panel paintings produced by Hodges of encounters with islanders during the voyage, in which the European perception of each society at the time is portrayed. Image taken from Wikimedia Commons.

Based on numerous accounts from ships logs and other sources, volcanic activity has been continuous since that time. During periods of higher activity, multiple vents within the summit crater send ejecta 100 m or more above the crater rim, with large bombs occasionally landing hundreds of meters away. Continued activity during February-May 2019 is covered in this report with information provided by the Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) which monitors the volcano and satellite data; photographs from tourists also provide valuable information about this remote location.

VMGD has maintained Alert Level 2 at Yasur since October 2016, indicating that it is in a major state of unrest. There is a permanent exclusion zone within 395 m of the eruptive vents where access is prohibited due to multiple hazards, primarily from large incandescent bombs up to 4 m in diameter which have been ejected from the vents onto the crater rim in the past, resulting in fatalities (BGVN 20:08).

Satellite and ground based information all support high levels of thermal activity during February -May 2019. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued 11 times in February, 27 times in March, and 20 times each in April and May. The MIROVA graph also indicated the ongoing consistently high levels of thermal energy throughout the period (figure 52). Plumes of SO2 emissions are common from Vanuatu's volcanoes; newer higher resolution data available beginning in 2019 reveal a persistent stream of SO2 from Yasur on a near-daily basis (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. The MIROVA graph of thermal energy at Yasur from 3 September 2018 through May 2019 indicates the ongoing activity at the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The SO2 plumes from Yasur were persistent during January-May 2019 when they were visible many days of each week throughout the period. Top left: On 12 January plumes were visible drifting E from both Ambrym (top) and Yasur (bottom). Top right: Plumes drifted W from three Vanuatu volcanoes on 7 February, Gaua (top), Ambrym (middle) and Yasur (bottom). Bottom left: On 12 March N drifting plumes could be seen from Ambae (top) and Yasur (bottom). On 27 April, only Yasur had an SO2 plume drifting W. Courtesy of Goddard Space Flight Center.

Satellite imagery confirmed that the heat sources from Yasur were vents within the summit crater of the pyroclastic cone. Both northern and southern vent areas were active. On 7 March 2019 the N vent area had a strong thermal signal. Ten days later, on 17 March, similar intensity thermal anomalies were present in both the N and S vent areas (figure 54). On 6 April the S vent area had a stronger signal, and gas emissions from both vents were drifting N (figure 55). Satellite imagery from 21 May 2019 indicated a strong thermal signal inside the crater in the area of the vents, and included a weaker signal clearly visible on the inside E crater rim. Strong Strombolian activity or spatter sending large incandescent bombs as far as the crater rim are a likely explanation for the signal (figure 56), underscoring the hazardous nature of approaching the crater rim.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Strong thermal anomalies from the crater of Yasur's pyroclastic cone seen in satellite images confirmed the ongoing high level of activity. Left: 7 March 2019, a strong thermal anomaly from the N vent area, shown with "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Right: 17 March 2019, thermal anomalies at both the N and S vent areas, shown with "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). The crater is about 500 m in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Strong thermal anomalies (left) and gas emissions (right) at Yasur were captured with different bands in the same Sentinel-2 satellite image on 6 April 2019. Left: The thermal anomaly in the S vent area was stronger than in the N vent area, "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Right: Gas plumes drifted N from both vent areas, "Natural color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). The crater is about 500 m in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Thermal activity from the crater of Yasur on 21 May 2019 produced a strong thermal signal from the center of the crater and a weaker signal on the inside E crater rim, likely the result of hazardous incandescent bombs and ejecta, frequent products of the activity at Yasur. Left: "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Right: "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). The crater is about 0.5 km in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Tourists visit Yasur on a regular basis. A former lake on the N side of Yasur has left ripples in the sand deposits over older volcanic rocks on the N side of the volcano (figure 57) since it drained in 2000 (BGVN 28:01). Visitors are allowed to approach the S rim of the crater where incandescence from both the N and S vents is usually visible (figure 58). Incandescent spatter from the convecting lava in the vents is highly dangerous and unpredictable and often covers the inner slopes of the rim as well as sending bombs outside the crater (figure 59).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. The pyroclastic cone of Yasur viewed from the north on 6 May 2019. Ripples in volcaniclastic sand in the foreground are remnants of a lake that was present on the N side of the volcano until a natural dam breached in 2000. Copyrighted photo by Nick Page, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Two glowing vents were visible from the south rim of Yasur on 6 May 2019. The S vent area is in the foreground, the N vent area is in the upper left. Copyrighted by Nick Page, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Incandescent spatter at Yasur on 6 May 2019 sent fragments of lava against the inside crater wall and onto the rim. The convecting lava in the vent can be seen in the lower foreground. Copyrighted photo by Nick Page, used with permission.

Geologic Background. Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and Vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, this mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone has a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. The active cone is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera, and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); The Captain Cook Society (URL: https://www.captaincooksociety.com/home/detail/225-years-ago-july-september-1774); Royal Museums Greenwich (URL: https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/13383.html); Wikimedia Commons, (URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Landing_at_Tana_one_of_the_New_Hebrides,_by_William_Hodges.jpg); Nick Page, Australia,Flickr: (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/152585166@N08/).


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Infrequent thermal anomalies, no ash emissions, February-May 2019

With historical eruptions reported back to 1842, Papua New Guinea's Bagana volcano on the island of Bougainville has been characterized by viscous andesitic lava flows down the steep flanks of its cone, along with intermittent ash plumes and pyroclastic flows. Ongoing thermal anomalies and frequent ash plumes have been typical of activity during the current eruption since it began in early 2000. Activity declined significantly in December 2018 and remained low through May 2019, the period covered in this report (figure 33). Information for this report comes primarily from satellite images and thermal data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. The MIROVA plot of radiative power at Bagana from 1 September 2018 through May 2019 shows a marked decline in thermal activity during December 2018 after ash explosions and satellite observations of flows during the previous months. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The last ash emission at Bagana was reported on 1 December 2018 by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). A Sentinel-2 satellite image showed a linear thermal anomaly trending NW from the summit on 14 December (BGVN 50:01). On 8 January 2019, an image contained a dense steam plume drifting E and a very faint thermal anomaly on the N flank a few hundred meters from the summit. A more distinct thermal anomaly at the summit appeared on 22 February 2019 (figure 34). A visitor to the region photographed incandescence on the flank, likely from the volcano, at dawn around 19 February 2019 (figure 35).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery revealed thermal anomalies at Bagana in January and February 2019. Left: a very faint thermal anomaly was N of the summit at the edge of the E-drifting steam plume on 8 January 2019. Right: A thermal anomaly was located at the summit, at the base of the NE-drifting steam plume on 22 February 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite images with "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. A visitor near Bagana spotted incandescence on the flank at dawn, possibly from a lava flow. Posted online 19 February 2019. Courtesy of Emily Stanford.

Two faint thermal anomalies were visible at the summit in satellite imagery on 19 March; a single one appeared on 29 March 2019 (figure 36). No thermal anomalies were recorded in Sentinel-2 images during April or May, but steam plumes and gas emissions were visible through cloud cover on multiple occasions (figure 37).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Faint thermal anomalies at Bagana were recorded in satellite imagery twice during March 2019. Left: 19 March, two anomalies appear right of the date label. Right: 29 March, a small anomaly appears right of the date label. Sentinel-2 image rendered with "Atmospheric Penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Steam and gas emissions at Bagana were recorded in satellite imagery during April and May 2019. Left: A steam plume drifted NW from the summit on 23 April, visible through dense cloud cover. Right: A gas plume drifted SW from the summit on 18 May. Sentinel-2 image with "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Emily Stanford (Twitter: https://twitter.com/NerdyBatLady, image posted at https://twitter.com/NerdyBatLady/status/1098052063009792001/photo/1).


Ambae (Vanuatu) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ambae

Vanuatu

15.389°S, 167.835°E; summit elev. 1496 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Declining thermal activity and no explosions during February-May 2019

Ambae (Aoba) is a large basaltic shield volcano in the New Hebrides arc, part of the multi-island country of Vanuatu. Its periodic phreatic and pyroclastic explosions originating in the summit crater lakes have been recorded since the 16th century. A pyroclastic cone appeared in Lake Voui during November 2005-February 2006 (BGVN 31:12, figure 30); an explosive eruption from a new pyroclastic cone in the lake began in mid-September 2017 (BGVN 43:02). Activity included high-altitude ash emissions (9.1 km), lava flows, and Strombolian activity. Intermittent pulses of ash emissions during the following months resulted in extensive ashfall and evacuations; multiple communities were affected by lahars. The most recent episode of the eruption from July to September 2018 (BGVN 44:02) resulted in 11-km-altitude ash plumes and the evacuation of the entire island due to heavy ashfall and lahars. This report covers activity from February to May 2019, with information provided by the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory of the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) and satellite data from multiple sources.

Activity diminished after the extensive eruptive phase of July-September 2018 when substantial ash plumes and ashfall resulted in evacuations. An explosion with an ash plume on 30 October 2018 was the last activity reported for 2018. Thermal alerts were reported by the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC thermal alerts system through January 2019, and the Log Radiative Power graph prepared by the MIROVA project showed decreasing thermal anomalies into June 2019 (figure 92). Satellite images recorded in April and May 2019 (figure 93) showed the configuration of the summit lakes to be little changed from the previous November except for the color (BGVN 44:02, figure 89). No ash emissions or SO2 plumes were reported during the period. VMGD noted that the volcano remained at Alert Level 2 through May 2019 with a 2-km-radius exclusion zone around the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. The MIROVA log radiative power plot for Ambae showed ongoing intermittent thermal anomalies from early September 2018 through May 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Satellite imagery in April and May 2019 showed little change in the configuration of lakes at the summit of Ambae since November 2018 (see BGVN 44:02, figure 89). Left: 24 April 2019. Right: 29 May 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery with "Natural Color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The island of Ambae, also known as Aoba, is a massive 2500 km3 basaltic shield that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes (Manaro Ngoru, Voui, and Manaro Lakua) is located at the summit within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diameter. That large central edifice is also called Manaro Voui or Lombenben volcano. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui (or Vui) about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area near the western coast.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sangay (Ecuador) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Sangay

Ecuador

2.005°S, 78.341°W; summit elev. 5286 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion on 26 March 2019; activity from 10 May through June produced ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows

Sangay is the southernmost active volcano in Ecuador, with confirmed historical eruptions going back to 1628. The previous eruption occurred during August and December and was characterized by ash plumes reaching 2,500 m above the crater. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows descended the eastern and southern flanks. This report summarizes activity during January through July 2019 and is based on reports by Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

After the December 2018 eruption there was a larger reduction in seismicity, down to one event per day. During January, February, and most of March there was no recorded activity and low seismicity until the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume at 0615 on 26 March. The ash plume rose to a height of around 1 km and dispersed to the SW as seen in GOES 16 satellite imagery as a dark plume within white meteorological clouds. There was no seismic data available due to technical problems with the station.

More persistent eruptive activity began on 10 May with thermal alerts (figure 30) and an ash plume at 0700 that dispersed to the W. An explosion was recorded at 1938 on 11 May, producing an ash plume and incandescent material down the flank (figure 31). Two M 2 earthquakes were detected between 3.5 and 9 km below the crater on 10 May, possibly corresponding to explosive activity. By 17 May there were two active eruptive centers, the central crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (figure 32).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Sangay for the year ending June 2019. The plot shows the August to December 2018 eruption, a break in activity, and resumed activity in May 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. An explosion at Sangay on 10 May 2019 sent ballistic projectiles up to 650 m above the crater at a velocity of over 400 km/hour, an ash plume that rose to over 600 m, and incandescent blocks that traveled over 1.5 km from the crater at velocities of around 150 km/hour. Screenshots are from video by IG-EPN.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. A photograph of the southern flank of Sangay on 17 May 2019 with the corresponding thermal infrared image in the top right corner. The letters correspond to: a) a fissure to the W of the lava flow; b) an active lava flow from the Ñuñurcu dome; c) the central crater producing a volcanic gas plume; d) a pyroclastic flow deposit produced by collapsing material from the front of the lava flow. Prepared by M. Almeida; courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 3 – 2019).

Activity at the central crater by 21 May was characterized by sporadic explosive eruptions that ejected hot ballistic ejecta (blocks) with velocities over 400 km/hour; after landing on the flanks the blocks travelled out to 2.5 km from the crater. Ash plumes reached heights between 0.9-2.3 km above the crater and dispersed mainly to the W and NW; gas plumes also dispersed to the W. The Ñuñurcu dome is located around 190 m SSE of the central crater and by 21 May had produced a lava flow over 470 m long with a maximum width of 175 m and an estimated minimum volume of 300,000 to 600,000 m3. Small pyroclastic flows and rockfalls resulted from collapse of the lava flow front, depositing material over a broad area on the E-SE flanks (figure 33). One pyroclastic flow reached 340 m and covered an area of 14,300 m2. During the 17 May observation flight the lava flow surface reached 277°C.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. A view of the ESE flanks of Sangay on 17 May 2019. The area within the black dotted line is the main area of pyroclastic flow deposition from the Ñuñurco Dome. Photo by M. Almeida; courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).

At the end of June activity was continuing at the central crater and Ñuñurco Dome. At least three lava flows had been generated from the dome down the SE flank and pyroclastic flows continued to form from the flow fronts (figure 34). Pyroclastic material had been washed into the Upano river and steam was observed in the Volcán River possibly due to the presence of hot rocks. Ash plumes continued through June reaching heights of 800 m above the crater (figure 35), but no ashfall had been reported in nearby communities.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 natural color (left) and thermal (center) images (bands 12, 11, 4), and 1:50 000 scale maps (right) of Sangay with interpretation on the background of a 30 m numerical terrain model (WGS84; Zone 17S) (Prepared by B. Bernard). The dates from top to bottom are 17 May, 22 May, 27 May, 16 June, and 26 June 2019. Prepared by B. Bernard; courtesy IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Plots giving the heights and dispersal direction of ash plumes at Sangay during May and June 2019. Top: Ash plume heights measures in meters above the crater. Bottom: A plot showing that the dominant dispersal direction of ash plumes is to the W during this time. Courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).

Geologic Background. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 19, Number 03 (March 1994)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Arenal (Costa Rica)

Vigorous venting of gas and emission of lava flows from Crater C

Colima (Mexico)

Fresh lava on the active dome; no subsidence in the past year

Etna (Italy)

Summary of activity since the end of the 1991-1993 eruption

Galeras (Colombia)

Low levels of seismicity, SO2 emission, and deformation

Irazu (Costa Rica)

Crater lake remains yellow-green, slightly acidic, warm, and high

Kanaga (United States)

Intermittent low-level activity, steam-and-ash plume

Kilauea (United States)

New lava flows, bench collapse, and postulated water entry into lava tubes

Klyuchevskoy (Russia)

Weak seismicity and fumarolic activity continue

Koryaksky (Russia)

Significant increase in seismic activity centered at 5 km depth

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Explosion sounds and small ash emissions

Lascar (Chile)

Dome collapse almost complete; new fractures and fumaroles; small ash emissions

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

Weak ash emission from Southern Crater

Masaya (Nicaragua)

Incandescence visible in daylight; small eruptions

Merapi (Indonesia)

Hazard status up: sharp increases in pyroclastic flows, glowing rock falls, and tilt

Momotombo (Nicaragua)

Voluminous plume from summit crater

Pilas, Las (Nicaragua)

Dense white plumes issue from a 10-m-diameter pit crater

Poas (Costa Rica)

Fumarolic and phreatic activity from N crater lake

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

Seismicity declines slightly; three earthquake swarms

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica)

Subaqueous degassing; fractures surrounding SE crater rim

Ruapehu (New Zealand)

Minor phreatic eruptions from crater lake

Sabancaya (Peru)

Moderate Vulcanian activity continues; hazard maps completed

Sheveluch (Russia)

Gas-and-steam plume persists; avalanches from the extrusive dome

Stromboli (Italy)

Normal Strombolian activity; crater descriptions

Telica (Nicaragua)

Passive fumarole and San Jacinto mud-pot temperatures remain stable; possible decrease in fumarole mass flux

Turrialba (Costa Rica)

Weak fumarolic activity

Unzendake (Japan)

Endogenous growth of lava dome; seismicity increases

Veniaminof (United States)

Lava emissions from the active cone; short-lived ash bursts

White Island (New Zealand)

Small ash eruptions and steam plumes



Arenal (Costa Rica) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Arenal

Costa Rica

10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vigorous venting of gas and emission of lava flows from Crater C

In March, . . . Crater C continued to emit gases, lava, and sporadic Strombolian eruptions. Lava progressing toward the NE and the Tabacón valley flowed along the same drainages in early 1994 as in 1993. A lobe branched off at 840 m elev and advanced separately. The front of the older, main flow has remained stationary at 620 m elev, 2.4 km from the source vent. Ash columns ascended up to 1 km above crater C; falling blocks and bombs reached 1,100 m elev (several hundred meters above the base of the edifice). Near the explosive vent, the erupted material built a small, blocky, dome-like structure. During March the seismic station VACR recorded 1,011 seismic events and 101 hours of tremor (figure 68). Sampling in early April revealed no new changes in temperature or acidity of hot and cold springs around the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Arenal seismic events and duration of tremor for January, February, and March of 1994 (received at station "VACR," 2.7 km NW of the active crater). Courtesy of OVSICORI.

Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

Information Contacts: G. Soto, G. Alvarado, and F. Arias, ICE; E. Fernández, J. Barquero, R. Van der Laat, F. de Obaldia, T. Marino, V. Barboza, and R. Sáenz, OVSICORI.


Colima (Mexico) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Colima

Mexico

19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fresh lava on the active dome; no subsidence in the past year

Clouds hampered observations during a climb to the summit on 2 March. Fresh, dark, unaltered lava on the active dome (figure 19) was hot, particularly along cracks. [J.B. Murray clarifies that this visual description was meant to emphasize the contrast between the newer dome rocks, which remained hot, and older highly altered rocks elsewhere. There was no evidence on 2 March to suggest that new lava had extruded since 1992.] The well-defined dome, ~100 m across and 15 m above the general level of the summit, had a depression on the W side. Fumarolic activity was concentrated in a pit on the E edge of the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Sketch map of the summit area of Colima, 2 March 1994, showing the active dome, fumarole locations, and elevations of GPS stations. Courtesy of J. Murray and B. van Wyk de Vries.

Only one rockfall was observed every 6 hours, compared to an average of one every 47 minutes recorded by John Murray during visits between 1982 and 1993. The low rockfall activity has coincided with an apparent change in the deformation regime. Preliminary analysis of 26 February-4 March 1994 ground deformation data, compared to the February 1993 survey, revealed no definite subsidence (unlike previous years), little movement, and no vertical changes >1 cm. Some stations have subsided while others have risen during this period.

Three GPS stations were established in the summit area: 1) at 3,802 m near the lowest fumarole on the NE side, 2) at 3,860 m near the N edge of the summit plateau, and 3) on the active dome. The station on the active dome was close to the summit, presently one of 4-5 lava spires protruding from the top of the dome at a measured elevation of 3,882 m (19.512°N, 103.617°W). These elevations are relative to the stations on the leveling traverse only; the nearest benchmarks of the national network are >20 km away. Elevations of the leveling stations were estimated by interpolation relative to the contours on 1:50,000 maps, and are consistent with accurately leveled heights to ± 3.4 m standard deviation. The summit height on the map is between 3,820 and 3,840 m. Although this implies an increase of >40 m since the aerial survey in 1975, the accuracy of the map is unknown.

Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

Information Contacts: J. Murray and B. van Wyk de Vries, Open Univ; Mitchell Ventura and Julian H. Reynoso, Colima Fire Service, Colima, México.


Etna (Italy) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3295 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Summary of activity since the end of the 1991-1993 eruption

Only steady degassing has been observed at Bocca Nuova, Voragine, and Southeast summit craters following the December 1991-30 March 1993 eruption. Northeast Crater, obstructed by debris that fell from the inner wall, has not shown appreciable degassing.

On 3 August 1993 the Bocca Nuova bottom sank ~30 m during one hour of strong degassing and ash emission that produced an ash column hundreds of meters high; small blocks and a few fresh bombs fell close to the vent. Unusually strong noise was heard and ground vibration was felt at the summit area during this explosive activity. These phenomena also enlarged the unstable crater rim, causing rockfalls for several weeks. Activity did not change significantly through the end of 1993; continuous degassing activity was observed at all craters except Northeast Crater, where reddish ash emissions in early October were probably related to release of overpressurized gas.

A slight renewal of seismicity was observed after the end of the eruption. Fracturing was the probable cause of 83 events (M >1); 14 of them were M 2.5. The cumulative strain-release trend was almost flat throughout the entire period, the only significant episode was a seismic swarm on 24 May 1993 (twenty-one M 1 shocks; Mmax = 3.2). The seismic activity was mainly located on the N and SE sides of the volcano; the N events had hypocentral depths of 12-26 km, whereas the SE events were <10 km. Volcanic tremor amplitude remained low during 1993; a moderate increase was recorded in July. Also, 27 long-period earthquake swarms were recorded in 1993. The best constrained hypocentral locations revealed a source volume below the summit area at a depth of <=3 km.

Tilt recorded at most of Etna's bore-hole stations showed a continuous small deflation of the radial component that started during the 1991-93 eruption. This tilt was confirmed by general contraction measured by the three EDM networks.

The following report is from S. Saunders and W.l McGuire. An EDM network high on the S and E flanks has been reoccupied 13 times between 1981 and 1993. Measurements have revealed >5 m of lateral displacement associated with four rifting events. The network was at least partly re-occupied in April, July, and November 1993. All three surveys came after the cessation of effusive activity in March 1993 (18:03). Compared to the immediately preceding measurements, 1993 data showed that N-S trending lines, broadly parallel to the eruptive fracture and the W rim of the Valle del Bove, lengthened by small amounts (30-60 ppm). Lines trending E-W, perpendicular to the fracture zone, showed no significant length changes between November 1992 and November 1993. These data confirm that the rifting process is contemporaneous with the initial propagation of the feeder dike for the 1991-93 eruption, with little additional dilation-related lateral displacement during the later stages of activity or following the end of lava effusion.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: IIV; S. Saunders, West London Institute; W. McGuire, Cheltenham & Gloucester College of Higher Education.


Galeras (Colombia) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Galeras

Colombia

1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Low levels of seismicity, SO2 emission, and deformation

The number of seismic events, SO2 emission rate, and deformation were all low in March. Instruments detected a total of 2,247 "butterfly-type" events. These were characterized by small magnitudes, associated with rock fracturing and fluid movement at depths of <2 km within the active cone, and influenced by earth tidal movements and external agents such as rain. Rock fracture events of M <2.5, were located predominantly in the W and NNE sectors of the active cone. Background tremor was variable. There were also new occurrences of the long-period "screw-type" events that are associated with pressurization of the system. These events are important because they were registered before most of the explosive eruptions at Galeras between July 1992 and June 1993, when volcanic activity was low. Measurements of SO2 emission obtained by the mobil COSPEC method remained low (<780 t/d). Aerial observations of the active volcanic cone revealed no changes; gas emission continues to be concentrated in the W sector of the main crater. Electronic tiltmeters showed no deformation changes.

Geologic Background. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

Information Contacts: INGEOMINAS, Pasto.


Irazu (Costa Rica) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Irazu

Costa Rica

9.979°N, 83.852°W; summit elev. 3432 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Crater lake remains yellow-green, slightly acidic, warm, and high

During March, yellow-green water in the crater lake at Irazú remained high, covering the bottom of the crater. Subaqueous fumaroles persisted in the N, NW, SW, and SE parts of the lake. At the contact between the slide deposit along the E crater wall and the lake, there appeared a new subaqueous fumarole. The lake temperature was 20-24.5°C, pH minimum was 5.5, and fumarole temperatures reached as high as 80°C.

Seismicity during 1993 took the form of sporadic, locally detected earthquakes with magnitudes in the 1.7-2.2 range. The earthquakes were thought to originate along a fault that lies within 5 km of the crater.

Geologic Background. Irazú, one of Costa Rica's most active volcanoes, rises immediately E of the capital city of San José. The massive volcano covers an area of 500 km2 and is vegetated to within a few hundred meters of its broad flat-topped summit crater complex. At least 10 satellitic cones are located on its S flank. No lava flows have been identified since the eruption of the massive Cervantes lava flows from S-flank vents about 14,000 years ago, and all known Holocene eruptions have been explosive. The focus of eruptions at the summit crater complex has migrated to the W towards the historically active crater, which contains a small lake of variable size and color. Although eruptions may have occurred around the time of the Spanish conquest, the first well-documented historical eruption occurred in 1723, and frequent explosive eruptions have occurred since. Ashfall from the last major eruption during 1963-65 caused significant disruption to San José and surrounding areas.

Information Contacts: G. Soto, Guillermo E. Alvarado, and Francisco (Chico) Arias, ICE; E. Fernández, J. Barquero, R. Van der Laat, F. de Obaldia, T. Marino, V. Barboza, and R. Sáenz, OVSICORI.


Kanaga (United States) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Kanaga

United States

51.923°N, 177.168°W; summit elev. 1307 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent low-level activity, steam-and-ash plume

Intermittent low-level activity continued in mid-March. Although ground observations from Adak . . . were limited due to poor weather, ground observers reported a moderate steam plume on the afternoon of 16 March and sulfur odors on 20 March. On 31 March, pilots and ground observers reported a vigorous steam plume containing minor ash that extended above the volcano to an estimated 3,050 m altitude. Local winds carried the plume to the N and NE, and light ashfall occurred on the flanks of the volcano. Satellite images revealed a warm spot . . . as well as a faint plume headed N, consistent with pilot reports. Observers in Adak reported no significant ashfall in March.

Residents of Adak reported that poor weather obscured Kanaga during the first half of April. The FAA and NWS logged no pilot reports of continuing eruptive activity at Kanaga through mid-April. Naval weather observers in Adak reported steam and ash rising a few hundred meters above the volcano on 12 April. Adak residents also reported a very strong sulfur smell during the second week of April.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical Kanaga stratovolcano is situated within the Kanaton caldera at the northern tip of Kanaga Island. The caldera rim forms a 760-m-high arcuate ridge south and east of Kanaga; a lake occupies part of the SE caldera floor. The volume of subaerial dacitic tuff is smaller than would typically be associated with caldera collapse, and deposits of a massive submarine debris avalanche associated with edifice collapse extend nearly 30 km to the NNW. Several fresh lava flows from historical or late prehistorical time descend the flanks of Kanaga, in some cases to the sea. Historical eruptions, most of which are poorly documented, have been recorded since 1763. Kanaga is also noted petrologically for ultramafic inclusions within an outcrop of alkaline basalt SW of the volcano. Fumarolic activity occurs in a circular, 200-m-wide, 60-m-deep summit crater and produces vapor plumes sometimes seen on clear days from Adak, 50 km to the east.

Information Contacts: AVO.


Kilauea (United States) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New lava flows, bench collapse, and postulated water entry into lava tubes

In March . . . E-51 and E-53 vents continued to erupt fluid tholeiitic lavas that traveled through tubes and plunged into the ocean (figures 94 and 95). On 2 March, half of the newly formed W Kamoamoa bench collapsed. Spectacular explosions followed (visible from the Chain of Craters road), which deposited spatter over an area extending 280 m along the coast and 35 m inland.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Map of the recent lava flows from Kilauea's east rift zone, March 1994. Contours are in meters and the contour interval is approximately 150 m. Labeled features include lava flows identified by episode, active vents, and the Pu`u `O`o lava pond. Courtesy of T. Mattox, HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. Detail of Hawaii coastline (Kamoamoa delta) showing the March 1994 lava flows from Kilauea. Contours are in meters. Courtesy of T. Mattox, HVO.

Lava stopped entering the ocean the next day, but by 1100 on 3 March, a flow escaped from a weak point in a tube at the base of a fault scarp (Pali Uli, figure 95); by 1153 the flow reached the coast. Explosions rapidly built a 6-m-high littoral cone on the bench. By 1200 on 5 March the rate of discharge decreased, leading to a lull in the eruptions. The rate of discharge picked up again on 8 March and continued through the next evening. These post-lull eruptions were accompanied by particularly large steam plumes, and they contained abundant spatter derived from broken bubble-walls, including some "Limu o Pele" (thin flakes of basaltic glass).

The large steam plumes in the post-lull eruptions presumably came about because seawater invaded the unoccupied tube system during the interval with low discharge. When lava reentered the tubes, contact with seawater lead to bubble-rich explosions.

Activity quieted by 10 March, and 3 days later lava again stopped entering the ocean. Activity resumed on 14 March when lava flows escaped at the 610-m and 274-m elevations. Lava continued to escape from the ~610-m elevation (the top of the cliff area called Pulama pali), but in the days that followed lava flows broke out of the tube system at progressively lower elevations. Lava escaped from the tube system just below Pali Uli on 15 March; on the following day it flowed into the ocean. The active flow front at the ocean (figure 95) wrapped around existing littoral cones, leaving their tops as prominent landmarks. By the end of the month, at least four tubes delivered lava to the active bench.

The surface of the Pu`u `O`o pond was 90-95 m below the level of the spillway rim during March. The pond's surface was not stagnant, it circulated with upwelling in the center moving outward.

During March the east rift zone continued to produce eruption tremor with fluctuating amplitude, sustained highs interrupted by nearly background levels ("banded tremor"). The last report on seismicity, 29 March, noted that after 27 March sustained tremor sometimes rose to 3x background. The number of microearthquakes was low beneath Kilauea's summit, and it ranged from low to average along the east rift zone. Shallow, long-period earthquakes were abundant in these areas on both 15 March (200 events) and 16 March (84 events).

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: T. Mattox, P. Okubo, and C. Heliker, HVO.


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak seismicity and fumarolic activity continue

Weak volcanic tremor (0.6-1.3 hours/day) and 1-3 volcanic earthquakes/day were registered in mid-February. During late February and early March, weak tremor continued and the number of seismic events increased slightly (2-5/day). Weak volcanic tremor was consistently registered for 1-3 hours/day throughout March, although it was slightly higher (<=4.5 hours/day) during the third week. Shallow volcanic earthquakes were more variable, ranging from 2 to 18 events/day. Seismic activity during the last week of March included both deep (3-13 events/day) and shallow (1-2 events/day) earthquakes, as well as weak volcanic tremor (4.5-6 hours/day). Weak fumarolic activity from the central crater was observed throughout most of March, and on 29 March a plume extended ~1 km above the crater.

Seismicity continued to increase in the first half of April, consisting of weak deep and shallow earthquakes (4-37 events/day) and weak volcanic tremor (0.5-6 hours/day). Weak fumarolic activity was observed in the central crater on 1-4 and 13 April, and the gas-and-steam plume reached as high as 800 m above the crater.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.


Koryaksky (Russia) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Koryaksky

Russia

53.321°N, 158.712°E; summit elev. 3430 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Significant increase in seismic activity centered at 5 km depth

During 6 March-8 April there was a significant increase in seismic activity. Most of the 43 seismic events recorded took place at a depth of 5 km beneath the volcano. The three strongest earthquakes occurred on 4 April. The level of seismic activity beneath the volcano decreased during the second week of April; only a few weak earthquakes were registered at depths of 5-10 km. On 8 April the Level of Concern Color Code was upgraded to Yellow from Green, indicating that an eruption is possible with little or no additional warning.

Geologic Background. The large symmetrical Koryaksky stratovolcano is the most prominent landmark of the NW-trending Avachinskaya volcano group, which towers above Kamchatka's largest city, Petropavlovsk. Erosion has produced a ribbed surface on the eastern flanks of the 3430-m-high volcano; the youngest lava flows are found on the upper W flank and below SE-flank cinder cones. Extensive Holocene lava fields on the western flank were primarily fed by summit vents; those on the SW flank originated from flank vents. Lahars associated with a period of lava effusion from south- and SW-flank fissure vents about 3900-3500 years ago reached Avacha Bay. Only a few moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during historical time, but no strong explosive eruptions have been documented during the Holocene. Koryaksky's first historical eruption, in 1895, also produced a lava flow.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion sounds and small ash emissions

"Crater 2 and Crater 3 both produced mild spasmodic eruptions. Crater 2 released small volumes of ash during 11-18 March, accompanied by deep roaring sounds and incandescent projections on the 15th and 16th. Crater 3 generated occasional explosion noises during 1-10 March, and released small volumes of ash on 3, 10, 13, 15, 17, 27, and 29 March. The ash emissions on 15 March were accompanied by loud explosion noises and incandescent projections. Low explosion noises were also heard on the 29th. There was no seismic monitoring at Langila in March."

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: B. Talai and C. McKee, RVO.


Lascar (Chile) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Lascar

Chile

23.37°S, 67.73°W; summit elev. 5592 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Dome collapse almost complete; new fractures and fumaroles; small ash emissions

Normal fumarolic activity has continued since the small eruption on 17 December 1993. During fieldwork between 10 February and 5 March, the plume was unusually low (200-400 m above the crater), with occasional increases to normal levels (800-1,000 m). The yellowish plume sometimes contained small amounts of gray ash. A short-lived eruption on the [evening] of 27 February was witnessed by S. Matthews from 40 km W of the volcano. A high dark eruption column produced a plume extending W and WNW; the plume detached from the volcano 15 minutes later. On 28 February the Argentinian Civil Defense reported that ash had fallen in Jujuy, Argentina (~265 km SE). Fumarolic activity diminished the next day.

Crater observations, 19 February 1994. Gardeweg and Matthews reached the summit using a helicopter provided by the Fuerza Aerea de Chile. The April 1993 dome (18:4) had been almost completely replaced by a deep hole (bottom not visible) produced by continuous collapse into the vent (18:11). It occupied the central and N side of the previously flat surface of the dome. The S side of the dome was cut by deep annular collapse fractures (figure 20). Strong degassing was concentrated in the collapse crater. Weaker fumarolic activity was observed along the outer fractures and margin of the dome. These had persistent low-velocity emissions without the "jet engine" noise heard on previous visits. Yellow sulfur deposits associated with small fumaroles were also observed on the inner crater walls. Continuous rockfall into the active crater was observed coming from the overhanging W wall and the higher part of the S wall.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Sketch showing the inside of Lascar's active crater on 19 February 1994. Remnants of the April 1993 dome can be seen, cut by deep annular faults. New fumarolic activity along an arcuate fracture coincided with an older, previously inactive, crater rim. View is approximately to the NE from the S rim of the active crater. Diagram by S. Matthews.

New fractures and fumaroles defined an elliptical zone centered on the active crater, but incorporating a larger part of the edifice (figure 21). An annular fracture with active fumaroles was observed along the rim of a previously inactive crater to the E. Small fumaroles were also present on the inside of the N wall and up to 50 m outside the S wall of the active crater. Two types of fumaroles occurred on the E side of the older W edifice, aligned on small (<10 m) fractures. The first type were cool (<100°C) passive fumaroles emitting water vapor, SO2, and H2SO4, and precipitating yellow and white sulfate minerals. The second type were hot (>=230°C) active fumaroles emitting steam and SO2, and depositing white sulfur.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Sketch of the summit area of Lascar, with its five nested craters, on 19 February 1994. New fumarole fields and unstable sites with continuous rockfall are shown. Diagram by S. Matthews.

Potential hazards. Subsidence of the crater floor as a result of conduit degassing since April 1993 has destabilized the inner part of the entire edifice. Collapse of the central part of the dome began in May 1993, coincident with the first observation of fumaroles on the S side of the active crater. An aerial photograph taken on 26 April 1993 shows a distinct fumarole on the inside rim of the N wall. Part of the subsidence occurred during the December 1993 eruption, as shown by aerial photographs taken by the Chilean Air Force on 28 December. As of early March, the apparent blockage of the degassing system due to dome collapse was similar to pre-eruptive conditions observed in previous cycles, and is likely to cause another eruption in the near future. If subsidence and widening of the collapse zone continues, the entire edifice may be destabilized. Another potential hazard involves slippage of the overhanging W wall of the active crater, which may also block the degassing system leading to "throat clearing" eruptions.

Additional information about past activity. Photographs taken on the morning of 17 December 1993 by Gonzalo Cabero (MINSAL) from Toconao (35 km NW) show a vertical column rising 8,000-9,000 m above the rim of the active crater. A small umbrella developed in the upper third of the column, but no plume extended laterally from the volcano. Partial column collapse generated weak ash clouds to the N and S, but no new pyroclastic deposits were recognized during fieldwork. No bomb ejections or ashfall were reported from this activity. However, fieldwork between 10 February and 5 March identified a large number of bombs within 3.5 km of the crater that had been erupted after April 1993. Blocks from the April 1993 eruption (18:4) exhibited a wide variety of density and textures. The more recent blocks are distinctly different, composed of dense, banded glassy andesite.

A previously unreported eruption, on an unknown day in August 1993, was observed from Soncor (~15 km W). A black ash cloud rose 1-2 km above the crater in ~ 10 minutes; no sound or seismicity was detected. This small eruption was probably a result of dome collapse.

Gregg Bluth provided the following satellite-based TOMS results for the 19 April 1993 eruption. Tonnage calculations did not require reflectivity corrections, but the scan bias was accounted for. An SO2 cloud was not visible on 19 April, but one was observed on 20-22 April. The SO2 cloud on 20 April was streaming from the volcano to ~1,800 km E and SE; tonnage was 355 kt. By 21 April the SO2 cloud had separated from the volcano by ~300 km and continued drifting SE. The leading edge was ~2,000 km SE of the volcano. The measured SO2 on this day was 340 kt. By 22 April some values were still above background, but there was no obvious cloud mass. On 23 April only a few pixels were above background; no days were checked after 23 April. The elongated cloud seen on 20 April indicates that earlier SO2 emissions may have been lost to TOMS observation. However, because the SO2 cloud showed only a slight decrease the next day, there is no justification for estimating a significantly higher original emission based on an SO2 loss rate. Estimated total SO2 yield for this eruption was 400 kt.

Geologic Background. Láscar is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. The andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano contains six overlapping summit craters. Prominent lava flows descend its NW flanks. An older, higher stratovolcano 5 km E, Volcán Aguas Calientes, displays a well-developed summit crater and a probable Holocene lava flow near its summit (de Silva and Francis, 1991). Láscar consists of two major edifices; activity began at the eastern volcano and then shifted to the western cone. The largest eruption took place about 26,500 years ago, and following the eruption of the Tumbres scoria flow about 9000 years ago, activity shifted back to the eastern edifice, where three overlapping craters were formed. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century, along with periodic larger eruptions that produced ashfall hundreds of kilometers away. The largest historical eruption took place in 1993, producing pyroclastic flows to 8.5 km NW of the summit and ashfall in Buenos Aires.

Information Contacts: M. Gardeweg, SERNAGEOMIN, Santiago; S. Matthews, S. Sparks, and P. McLeod, Univ of Bristol; G. Bluth, GSFC.


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak ash emission from Southern Crater

"Low-level activity prevailed at Main and Southern Craters. Both craters gently emitted weak white vapour. A small ash emission from Southern Crater on 8 March was accompanied by roaring sounds and steady weak glow. This activity had ceased by 10 March. Seismic activity was at a moderate level throughout the month, although there was a steady, but small, increase starting at the time of the ash emission. Measurements from water-tube tiltmeters . . . showed slight deflation."

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: B. Talai and C. McKee, RVO.


Masaya (Nicaragua) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.984°N, 86.161°W; summit elev. 635 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Incandescence visible in daylight; small eruptions

When visited by a team of scientists from INETER and FIU during 1000-1100 on 1 March 1994, Masaya exhibited two adjacent incandescent openings in the cooling lava lake. The 4- to 7-m-diameter openings appeared at the base of the N wall of a smaller crater within Santiago crater. In September 1993 incandescence was only visible at a single opening, and only at night. According to Canadian Missionaries living in Leon, the second incandescent opening was exposed in mid-February 1994. Several tourists reported seeing ash ejected from the incandescent openings on several occasions, an event documented by a second research team later in the month (see below).

INETER-FIU researchers saw a "diffuse, white, sulfur-rich plume . . . punctuated every several minutes by stronger, short-lived (tens of seconds) pulses of gas. The pulses were accompanied by jetting sounds that were easily heard on the S rim." They also noted a mantle of fresh black ash on the crater floor immediately adjacent to the incandescent openings.

During the period 7-11 March 1994, a research team from Open Univ (OU) revisited a 21 km leveling network established in February 1993. They resurveyed the network using precise leveling to find the vertical deformation. Errors in this portion of their survey were several millimeters. The OU team found that relative to stations 5 km E on the shore of Laguna de Masaya, the summit had shifted 2-3 cm upwards. A zone of uplift trended NE across the summit; the greatest uplift occurred near the caldera wall 2 km SW of the summit.

On 7 March at 1100 the OU team noted that the two incandescent openings remained separate, but by 1800 they had merged as the division between them collapsed. On 11 March the team tied this incandescent opening into their survey net. They used electronic distance measuring (EDM) instrumentation, shooting with double bearings, to determined the elevation of the opening as 233 m (error of 0.2 m). This elevation is equivalent to 294 m below the level of the car parking area on the S rim (150-200 m above sea level). The vent that contained the incandescent openings was elongate N-S, about 12-m long, and at least several meters deep.

Since their previous visit in February 1993, the OU team reported increased summit activity, including "strong smell of SO2" and a "fainter whiff of HCl at times." One team member felt that there were more fumaroles in Santiago crater and also along the uppermost arcuate fracture on the N side of Nindirí crater than in recent years. On 31 August 1993 fumaroles were found between Santiago and Masaya craters (BGVN 18:09), but during March 1994 they were absent. From observations of activity, OU researchers suggested that the top of the magma body is perhaps 30-80 m below the level of the vent.

During the interval 7-22 March the OU team reported that incandescence remained visible, ". . . glowing bright red even in broad daylight." Audible gas exhalations were monitored 16 times during this interval: they averaged 30-40 puffs/minute. Bombs were typically ejected slightly less than once per minute, but each explosion produced 1-10 bombs. They landed at most about 30 m from the vent, to the WSW, W, or NW. Maximum bomb diameter was 50 cm. The blanket of tephra in this quadrant grew noticeably during the observation period.

Even though in September 1993 only one incandescent opening was visible, a short time later, in early October 1993, Masaya underwent an episode of increased explosive activity that included lava splashing every 10-15 seconds (BGVN 18:10). Some previous Masaya reports described fluctuations in the color of incandescent openings (for example in 1982, SEAN 07:11).

In addition to their geological observations, the OU team also remarked that "Hundreds of parrots, which had deserted the crater last year, have returned to nest in holes and crevices in the S walls of Santiago crater now that it is active again." In 1979 Masaya became Nicaragua's first National Park.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Cristian Lugo, INETER; Michael Conway, Andrew Macfarlane, and Peter LaFemina, Florida International Univ (FIU); J. Murray, B. van Wyk de Vries, and A. Maciejewski, Open Univ.


Merapi (Indonesia) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Hazard status up: sharp increases in pyroclastic flows, glowing rock falls, and tilt

The number of pyroclastic flows, glowing rock falls, and tilt increased sharply in the past several months (table 7). Both pyroclastic flows and rockfalls with substantial incandescent components traveled as far as 1.8 km (more typically, 0.5-1.0 km) down the SW slopes. In March, the number of these falls increased 1,550-fold over the background value at an undisclosed time (table 7).

Table 7. Merapi activity during 1 November 1993-23 March 1994. Pyroclastic flows have a background level ("bkgd.") of ~60-120 flows/month. In 1994 they ranged from 5-47x the background level. The background level for rockfalls was undisclosed. The RSAM curve refers to a measure of seismic power output.

Date Pyroclastic Flows Rockfalls SO2 flux variation SO2 flux average RSAM background RSAM maximum
Nov 1993 bkgd. 297x 31-188 91 ~13 ~13
Dec 1993 bkgd. 409x 41-108 66 ~14 ~22 (1)
Jan 1994 5x 599x 37-151 81 ~16 ~18
Feb 1994 9x 827x 64-162 73 ~17 ~18
1-23 Mar 1994 47x 1550x 65-197 123 ~16 greater than 24 (2)

Tiltmeters were installed in November 1992 on the crater rim near the contact with the 1992 dome. Beginning in July 1993 they showed a consistent outward rotation of ~5 µrad/day, achieving a change of 1,200 µrad overall through the end of March 1994. A measure of seismic power output (RSAM) also showed cumulative increases during November 1993-Mar 1994, indicating heightened seismic activity (table 7). During this interval the SO2 flux data were less compelling, but also showed both overall and generally progressive increases in the smallest values measured for any one interval (table 7).

Based on these monitoring data VSI proposed a shift in the hazard status, from "Normal Activity" to "First Alert Level."

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: W. Tjetjep and R. Sukhyar, VSI; S. Bronto, MVO; UPI.


Momotombo (Nicaragua) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Momotombo

Nicaragua

12.423°N, 86.539°W; summit elev. 1270 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Voluminous plume from summit crater

The joint INETER and FIU team visited Momotombo on 13 March 1994, but did not gain access to the crater. At that time the plume rising from the summit crater was voluminous and visible for many kilometers. Temperatures of fumaroles located near the seismic station (just above the S base of the volcano) were similar to last year (though values were unreported in BGVN 18:03, 18:09, & 18:10).

Geologic Background. Momotombo is a young stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows extend down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms an island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of Strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional stronger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after a 10 April 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the south flank.

Information Contacts: Cristian Lugo, INETER; Michael Conway, Andrew Macfarlane, and Peter LaFemina, Florida International Univ; John B. Murray, Ben van Wyk de Vries, and Adam Maciejewski, Open Univ.


Las Pilas (Nicaragua) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Las Pilas

Nicaragua

12.495°N, 86.688°W; summit elev. 1088 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Dense white plumes issue from a 10-m-diameter pit crater

On 6 March 1994, we visited Las Pilas to determine the source and nature of a dense white plume, visible for at least 10 km to the S, that rose from the upper S slope of the volcano. The plume, which smelled strongly of sulfur, emerged from the bottom of a small phreatic (?) pit crater. The crater measured roughly 10 m in diameter and 5-10 m deep. The pit walls were vertical, and the pit opening was mantled by a thin coating of native sulfur. Extensive mixing with atmospheric gases occurred before the plume rose from the pit. Immediately downslope from the crater there appeared to be bedded volcanic deposits. Their presence suggests that the pit crater was the source of numerous phreatic-phreatomagmatic explosions.

We briefly examined a large, circular phreatic pit crater 50-75 m W of the small phreatic pit. This larger crater was about 30-40 m in diameter, and roughly 30 m deep. The phreatic explosion that produced the crater must have been unusually powerful, because it disrupted several (5-7 m thick) basaltic lava flows. No fumarolic activity was observed at this crater, and we saw no evidence of surge deposits in its vicinity. A Hewlett Packard chromatograph of in-situ soils at Las Pilas yielded 0.19 and 0.21 vol. % CO2, values probably within the range of background in local volcanic soils (0.04-0.1 vol.%).

CO2 in soils at volcanic areas varies considerably, and includes some relatively high values. A preliminary survey of the literature suggests soil gas CO2 in volcanic areas ranges from ten to several-hundred times the background found in many non-volcanic areas.

Geologic Background. Las Pilas volcanic complex, overlooking Cerro Negro volcano to the NW, includes a diverse cluster of cones around the central vent, Las Pilas (El Hoyo). A N-S-trending fracture system cutting across the edifice is marked by numerous well-preserved flank vents, including maars, that are part of a 30-km-long volcanic massif. The Cerro Negro chain of cinder cones is listed separately in this compilation because of its extensive historical eruptions. The lake-filled Asososca maar is located adjacent to the Cerro Asososca cone on the southern side of the fissure system, south of the axis of the Marrabios Range. Two small maars west of Lake Managua are located at the southern end of the fissure. Aside from a possible eruption in the 16th century, the only historical eruptions of Las Pilas took place in the 1950s from a fissure that cuts the eastern side of the 700-m-wide summit crater and extends down the N flank.

Information Contacts: Cristian Lugo, Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado 17610-2110, Managua, Nicaragua; Michael Conway, Andrew Macfarlane, and Peter LaFemina, Florida International Univ (FIU), Miami, FL 33199 USA; John B. Murray, Ben van Wyk de Vries, and Adam Maciejewski, Open Univ, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, U.K..


Poas (Costa Rica) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Poas

Costa Rica

10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumarolic and phreatic activity from N crater lake

Escaping gases in the 200-m-diameter, northernmost crater lake at Poás continued to bubble, gush, and geyser, and they produced weak phreatic eruptions through the lake surface. In March, subaqueous fumaroles in the SE emitted small bubbles, but those in the lake center produced phreatic eruptions that drove through the lake surface and reached several meters in height. The lake was dark green in color and 50.5°C; its level had subsided 60 cm with respect to the level in January, leaving a yellow strandline along the banks. A gas cloud or plume frequently rose 500 m above the lake surface, damaging vegetation at several locations near the active crater.

The seismic station adjacent the active crater (POA2) registered 7,118 low-frequency events and 114 moderate-frequency events during March, the most active month so far this year. On the most seismically active day of the month, 16 March, 436 seismic events took place.

Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

Information Contacts: G. Soto, G. Alvarado, and F. Arias, ICE; E. Fernández, J. Barquero, R. Van der Laat, F. de Obaldia, T. Marino, V. Barboza, and R. Sáenz, OVSICORI.


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismicity declines slightly; three earthquake swarms

"Seismicity declined slightly in March. The total number of recorded caldera earthquakes was 458 . . . . Three small earthquake swarms occurred. The first two, on 9 March, were located in Greet Harbour and near the airport; a total of 53 earthquakes were recorded that day. The other swarm consisted of 123 earthquakes on 13 March in the Karavia Bay area. During the month, 46 earthquakes were located instrumentally, 17 of them with reasonable errors (<1 km). Locations were mainly in Greet Harbour, the airport region, and ~1 km E of Vulcan cone . . . . Routine leveling to the S end of Matupit Island on 16 March showed no significant change compared to measurements made on 24 February."

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: L. Sipison and C. McKee, RVO.


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Subaqueous degassing; fractures surrounding SE crater rim

During March, Rincón de la Vieja continued fumarolic and seismic activity. The crater lake, which was 40 cm below the level seen in June 1993, had a temperature of 36°C. The lake had a clear gray color, although a fog of condensed gases hovering over the lake hampered visual observations. Visitors noted that vigorous, noisy fumaroles in the E crater wall produced enough sulfurous fumes to provoke coughing and irritate the eyes and skin. Fumes have also injured the already sparse vegetation adjacent to the active crater.

ICE researchers reported "sporadic and intermittent bubbling events (up to several meters in height and diameter) rising up from the center and SE portions of the warm lake, producing strong waves and noise, and giving a muddy-gray color to the lake." They also saw new, open fractures surrounding the SE crater rim.

In the interval February-March 1993, Rincón's seismic station registered an increase in events of low frequency (0.5-1.3 Hz) with durations [of] 25-150 seconds (figure 9). When previously seismically active, as in January and September 1993, both high- and low-frequency signals were common.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Seismic events at Rincón de la Vieja received at station RIN3, 5 km SW of the active crater, January-March 1994. Courtesy of OVSICORI.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge that was constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of 1916-m-high Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: Gerardo J. Soto, Guillermo E. Alvarado, and Francisco (Chico) Arias, ICE; E. Fernández, J. Barquero, R. Van der Laat, F. de Obaldia, T. Marino, V. Barboza, and R. Sáenz, OVSICORI.


Ruapehu (New Zealand) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Ruapehu

New Zealand

39.28°S, 175.57°E; summit elev. 2797 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor phreatic eruptions from crater lake

Crater Lake underwent a strong heating phase beginning in mid-January (see figure 15) that resulted in minor phreatic eruptions in February and March [but see 19:05]. The heating phase accompanied and followed a period of increased volcanic tremor, briefly enhanced acoustic noise levels, and minor inflation.

Following 2-3 days of elevated 2-Hz acoustic signal, temperatures at a depth of 20 m off Logger Point suddenly began rising on 9 January. Temperature increases of 6-9°C at 20 m depths, coupled with a lack of significant upwelling, suggested that the lake was stratified, with the upper layer disconnected from convection at depth. A new temperature logger was installed on 18 January, 4 m NE of Logger Point, to record at a depth of 1-2 m. Temperatures peaked around 18 February after rises of 19°C at 20 m depth (to 47°C) and ~14°C on the surface at Outlet (to 39°C). In March the temperature at 20-m depth declined at a steady rate of 0.5°C/day, but then stabilized. Various reports received by IGNS indicated minor phreatic eruptions, consisting primarily of steam clouds, on 12 February, on 1, 5, 7, and 31 March, and on 1 April. The 7 March activity consisted of a sudden upwelling near the center of the lake that created waves and a steam column.

No evidence of upwelling over the main vent in the battleship-gray crater lake was detected during fieldwork on 18 and 28 January, 11-12 March, and 22-23 March. On 28 January the N vent area exhibited one extremely weak convection cell surrounded by scattered yellow slicks; at least three clearly defined cells are normally present at this location. Moderately strong meltwater inflows and occasional minor ice-falls were seen on both January visits. Very weak convection with thin surface slicks was observed in the N vent area on 12 March. New snow that fell on 8 March was undisturbed close to the N shore, precluding any surging since then. Sulfur strandlines had formed 10-20 cm above lake level near Outlet, also indicative of little recent activity. However, fresh deposits of mud (2-3 cm thick) were observed at Outlet on 12 March. Strong convection had resumed by 22-23 March at several sites over the N vent, after a 2-3 month period of very weak convection. Large yellow slicks from that area were clearly visible when washed up around the shore. The lake had risen to overflow level, but the outflow rate appeared low. Convection at the N vent area was less pronounced on 28 March.

Volcanic tremor remained at background levels in November-December 1993 after declining steadily from a peak value in late August. Tremor power began increasing again in mid-December, peaked at ~8,000 watts on 7 January, and remained high (~3,000 watts) through early February. Dominant frequency remained in the 2-3 Hz range. Signal noise interrupted power records in mid-February, but drum records indicated that tremor remained high until late February. No reliable tremor data were obtained in March. Following few recorded volcanic earthquakes in November, the number of A- and B-type events increased in mid-December and mid-January. Several distinct B-type events were recorded at the dome station in January. On average, 10 B-type events/day were detected in the second half of February, but they decreased in number during March.

Minor inflation between 4 November and 18 January increased the crater width to equal the relatively high value measured in early 1992, a period of strong lake heating and minor eruptions. The crater remained inflated on 12 March, but had deflated somewhat by 28 March. The most significant change in January was the westward shift (28 mm) of a station on the W side of the crater lake, which is typical of seasonal movement recorded at that location over the last 5 years; it had almost returned to its original position by 12 March. The movement was most likely due to ground thawing or relief from snow loading rather than from volcanic influences.

Geologic Background. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least four cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 km3 dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and surrounded by another 100 km3 ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

Information Contacts: P. Otway, IGNS Wairakei.


Sabancaya (Peru) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Sabancaya

Peru

15.787°S, 71.857°W; summit elev. 5960 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Moderate Vulcanian activity continues; hazard maps completed

Fieldwork was conducted on 4-8 March by scientists from the Univ Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France), the Instituto de Geofisico del Perú (Arequipa, Perú), and the Univ de Liège (Belgium). The purpose of the visit was to observe current activity, assess eruptive hazards, and collect samples of juvenile material. The joint mission investigations included the geology and geomorphology of the summit domes and block-lava flows, the role played by explosions on the morphology of the summit, crater, and ice cap (fracturing, gullying, tephra-fall cover, and mudflows), and analysis of tephra, lavas, and ice.

An ash explosion was observed early in the morning on 5 March from Sallili (8 km E at the base of the volcano). The eruption column rose for 30 seconds to a height of 2.5 km and generated a dark gray plume that was blown W. A vapor-rich explosion ~ 2.5 hours later produced a dominantly white plume that rose 1.5 km. Between these explosion there was a discrete vapor plume above the crater. Another early morning explosion on 7 March lasted for about 60 seconds and fed a dark gray plume 1.5 km high. Dominantly white plumes later that morning rose 1-2 km.

Activity of a similar nature has been exhibited since December 1992, with strong explosions of gas, ash, and blocks forming a gray or light-gray plume rising 1-3 km above the summit. Explosions have occurred every 1-2 hours (20-30 minutes in late 1992), and generally lasted <1 minute. Residents of Sallili have seen glowing projections at night since autumn 1993. Observations in December 1992 (Salas and Thouret) indicated that the crater had widened.

The 1990-92 tephra represent a small bulk volume (0.025 km3), but are widely dispersed around the crater; ballistic blocks reached a few hundred meters, and ash as far as 20 km. The juvenile component belongs to a K-rich calc-alkaline series and is compositionally variable from andesite (58% SiO2) to dacite (63% SiO2). The mineral assemblage of 1990-93 juvenile magma consists of plagioclase, green pyroxene, brown amphibole, biotite, destabilized olivine, and Fe-Ti oxides. Since 1990 the juvenile component has increased from 15 to ~50% by volume. Ejecta consist of black, vitreous, slightly vesicular andesitic fragments and gray dacitic fragments. Glassy black blocks with radial fractures dominate the 1994 tephra. Although the geochemical difference between the andesite and dacite is small, mineralogical disequilibrium suggests an interaction between two magma batches. One was more felsic than the dacite and included oligoclase and hypersthene; the other was more mafic than the andesite and included labradorite, bronzite, and olivine.

Hazard assessment and hazard-zone mapping has been done based on geological and geomorphological data, photo interpretation, remote sensing, and models of tephra dispersion (Thouret and others, 1994). Hazard zones are defined for tephra-fall, pyroclastic flows, lahars, and potential catastrophic events. These zones are portrayed for moderate Vulcanian activity (1990-94), growth of a dome and/or emission of a blocky lava flow, possible increase of Vulcanian activity (including small-scale pyroclastic flows), and a potential large Plinian event. Geological study and remote sensing of the current activity have provided a sound basis for evaluating and mapping hazards at and around Sabancaya. Holocene block-lava flows cover as much as 40 km2 around the summit domes. Thin Plinian tephra-fall deposits from historical eruptions are found as far as 11 km from the crater, and block-and-ash pyroclastic-flow deposits as far as 7 km from the source. Recent lahars have traveled ~25 km downstream.

Unstable lava domes pose a threat for ~35,000 people living in the Rio Colca and Siguas valleys. Sabancaya is still ice-clad (currently estimated to be 3.5 km2 of glacial ice) despite its recent 4-year period of activity. The Majes River irrigation canal project is also at potential risk should a moderate-to-large eruption melt the ice and snow on Sabancaya and Ampato.

Reference. Thouret, J-C., Guillande, R., Huaman, D., Gourgaud, A., Salas, G., and Chorowicz, J., 1994, L'activité actuelle du Nevado Sabancaya (Sud-Pérou): reconnaissance géologique et satellitaire, évaluation et cartographie des menaces volcaniques: Bull. Soc. Geol. France, v. 165, no. 1, p. 49-63.

Geologic Background. Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.

Information Contacts: A. Gourgaud, F. Legros, and J-C. Thouret, Univ Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France; G. Salas, Univ San Augustine, Arequipa; A. Rodriguez and M. Uribe, Instituto de Géofisico del Perú, Arequipa; E. Juvigné, Univ de Liège, Belgium.


Sheveluch (Russia) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Gas-and-steam plume persists; avalanches from the extrusive dome

During March a gas-and-steam plume was observed above the extrusive dome. The height of the plume varied from 800 to 2,500 m above the crater rim and extended 40-60 km downwind to the S, SW, and W. Weak volcanic tremor occurred for ~2-4 hours/day, and shallow volcanic earthquakes were registered at a rate of 2-5 events/day. Avalanches from the N part of the dome occurred on 17 March. Fumarolic activity from the extrusive dome was observed during the last week of March. Small explosive events may have occurred on 25 and 31 March based on interpretation of seismic activity. Weak volcanic tremor decreased during the last week of March (0.2-1.5 hours/day), but shallow volcanic earthquakes (1-5 events/day) occurred at a similar rate.

In early April, weak shallow seismic activity (3-8 earthquakes/day) accompanied the continued growth of the extrusive crater dome. Seismicity increased during the second week of April (7-23 events/day), with volcanic tremor registered for 1-3 hours/day. A gas-and-steam plume reached as high as 3 km above the crater rim on 2 April.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: V. Kirianov, IVGG.


Stromboli (Italy) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Normal Strombolian activity; crater descriptions

"On two of three visits during 9-12 March, very detailed observations of crater morphology and eruptive activity were made. The volcano continues its millennia-long eruption; the intensity of the current activity is considered normal and characteristic of Stromboli's persistent activity. A brief visit to the Pizzo Sopra la Fossa (figure 33) was carried out on the afternoon of 9 March, but due to dense weather clouds few visual observations were possible. The noise of explosions was audible every 10-15 minutes, and continuous lava splashing could be heard. Breaks in the cloud cover revealed vigorous degassing in the entire crater area.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Sketch map of the crater area at Stromboli. Bold numbers indicate craters, smaller numbers are vents. Courtesy of B. Behncke.

"The second summit climb and overnight stay was undertaken during much improved weather conditions, from about 1700 on 10 March until 0700 the next morning. The active craters were observed from the beginning of the visit until 0200 on 11 March. Observations were made at close range from the rim of crater 3 (the SW-most active crater) from 2130 until 2300. Eruptions from at least 3 vents all produced largely ash-free lava fountains that rose <=150 m. Vent 4 in Crater 3 (figure 34) ejected low lava fountains about every 10 minutes between 1700 and 2000, but then remained inactive for several hours. The eruptions made little noise, similar to eruptions from the same vent during visits in September 1989, March and November 1990, and August 1991. Another vent (1 & 2) was present in the NE part of Crater 3, at the location where several small incandescent pits and conelets existed in 1990-91. However, there is now a larger and deeper pit with much more vigorous activity. The pit is roughly circular and has a diameter of about 30-50 m; its bottom (and active bocca) is not visible from any accessible place on the crater rim. Nonetheless, it appears probable that there is an active, vigorously spattering lava pond in the pit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sketch of Stromboli's crater 3 seen from the SE rim of crater 1, 12 March 1994. Made from a composite photograph. View is to the SW. Courtesy of B. Behncke.

"During the 90-minute observation from the crater rim, remarkable fluctuations in pit activity were seen. There would be a period of very low-level activity (up to 5 minutes long) when little or no spatter was thrown above the pit lip. Then bombs and spatter would be obliquely projected against the S wall of the pit for several minutes. This was followed by more vigorous vertical fountains of gradually increasing height. For ~ 10-20 minutes there would be a stupendous display of such fountains until a sequence of very large fountains (up to 100 m high) marked the end of increased activity. The heat of the large fountains could be felt on the crater rim; fortunately, no bombs fell closer than 25 m to the vantage point. Three such large fountains, or fountaining sequences, were observed during the stay on the crater rim.

"Crater 2 was inactive and not visible, but vent 4 at the SW end of Crater 1 had very violent and loud eruptions every 20-30 minutes, sometimes at shorter intervals. These eruptions began instantaneously with crashing sounds and ejection of a very thin, tall, vertical incandescent column. Within ~1 second, another fountain would shoot obliquely from a second vent a few meters away and jet right through the first column; these eruptions lasted <5 seconds. Several of them were followed within the next few minutes by a series of up to four more eruptions of gradually decreasing intensity. Many bombs from the oblique fountains fell into the adjacent pit with continuous spattering. Similar activity continued after our departure to make observations from Pizzo Sopra la Fossa. Loud crashing noises from vent 4 of Crater 1 were frequently heard during attempts to sleep below the observation platform and the next morning when descending towards the village of Stromboli.

"The summit was climbed a third time during daylight on 12 March, and a visit was made to the craters from 0900 until 1100. All of the craters are significantly deeper than during visits in March 1990 and August 1991. The pit (vent 1 & 2) in Crater 3 (figure 34) was still continuously spattering and ejecting small lava fountains, but there were fewer large fountains. Vent 4 in Crater 3 ejected low lava fountains ~ 3 times, but was hidden by dense gas-and-steam clouds most of the time. Striking changes have occurred in Crater 1, probably during the violent explosions of October 1993. All cinder cones observed within this crater in 1990-91 have vanished; now there is an elongate chasm up to 60 m deep that appears to have a large but inactive fissure on its floor. An irregularly shaped vent in the NE portion of the crater, not active 10-11 March, erupted several times. These eruptions had durations of up to 30 seconds and produced low (~50 m) fountains mixed with very dense steam-and-gas plumes and accompanied by relatively loud rumblings. The gas plumes made the stay on the crater rim inconvenient but did not cause other problems.

"The most impressive eruptions came from vents 3 & 4 at the SW end of Crater 1. These vents lie within a larger depression of highly irregular shape; one bocca continuously emitted a bluish gas column at high pressure from a mouth maybe 2 m in diameter. Most eruptions came without any warning, especially when gas plumes caused poor visibility. However, several were preceded by brief roaring noises. The eruptions themselves began with immense crashing noises that were heart-rending at a distance of <= 50 m. Initially a diffuse ash plume would boil up from vent 3 and turbulently shoot to ~ 50 m, then large but continuously fragmenting incandescent lava lumps would be ejected at extremely high velocity. Great turbulence within the rising fountain violently tossed and turned the bombs, which therefore did not travel along the parabolic trajectories commonly observed during Strombolian eruptions. At times there were very loud but brief gas emissions from this vent that did not develop into eruptions; one particularly violent eruption was followed by several minutes of powerful degassing.

"After the end of the 12 March summit visit, ash plumes from vent 4 in Crater 1 became more common. During departure from the island on the morning of 14 March, a dense brown ash plume rose several hundred meters above the weather clouds that covered the summit."

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: B. Behncke, Geomar, Kiel, Germany.


Telica (Nicaragua) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Telica

Nicaragua

12.606°N, 86.84°W; summit elev. 1036 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Passive fumarole and San Jacinto mud-pot temperatures remain stable; possible decrease in fumarole mass flux

Researchers from INETER and FIU visited Telica on 7 March 1994; Mike Conway submitted the following report. In late 1993, INETER deployed a seismic station about 500 m E of the crater, on the crest of an E-W trending ridge. Since the seismic station was deployed, the number of daily seismic events has ranged from 200 to 300. The unusually high seismicity led to concern that Telica was returning to an active phase.

Fumaroles feeding the plume rising from the Telica crater were inaccessible. A small field of passive fumaroles, situated in the E-W trending ridge wall almost immediately below the seismic station, yielded 78-84°C temperatures. These temperatures are similar to the 85°C temperature reported in September for the same fumaroles (BGVN 18:09). Mass flux from the fumaroles, however, appears to have decreased since September 1993. The change in mass flux may be related to seasonal variation in rainfall; the dry season in Nicaragua extends from November through March. Researchers at Telica are currently developing a program to study diffuse gases in soil.

San Jacinto Hot Springs. At the small village of San Jacinto there exist a number of boiling mud pots. San Jacinto is located along Nicaragua Highway 26, about 9 km NE of the town of Telica and 2 km E of Santa Clara volcano. Based on a 9 March 1994 visit by FIU researchers, Mike Conway submitted the following report.

The active mud-pot field measured about 35 x 100 m, elongate N to S. Alteration of basaltic lava flows to the E suggests that the geothermal field was much larger at one time, and probably equidimensional (225 x 225 m).

Individual mud pots ranged in size from 1 m to as much as 3-4 m in diameter. Many of the mud pots were actively spewing mud, and one, located at the SW corner of the field, had, according to local villagers, constructed a mud volcano (to 1-m height) during February-March 1994. For individual mud pots the ratio of mud or muddy water to relatively mud-free water varied. Mud-water temperatures throughout the field, however, were consistent and ranged from 98 to 100°C. These 100°C temperatures were similar to those measured in January 1988 (SEAN 13:01).

Eight soil gas samples, from sites distributed throughout the field, were analyzed for CO2 using a Hewlett Packard chromatograph. Soil gas CO2 ranged from 0.04 to 0.09 vol. %, with a mean value of 0.058 vol. % (standard deviation, 0.0184), well within the normal background range of about 0.04-0.1 vol. % typically found in many non-volcanic areas.

Geologic Background. Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately E, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.

Information Contacts: Cristian Lugo and Martha Navarro, INETER; Michael Conway, Andrew Macfarlane, and Peter LaFemina, Florida International Univ (FIU); John B. Murray, Ben van Wyk de Vries, and Adam Maciejewski, Open Univ.


Turrialba (Costa Rica) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Turrialba

Costa Rica

10.025°N, 83.767°W; summit elev. 3340 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak fumarolic activity

A visit on 25 March revealed almost no activity at the central part of the main crater, and very weak fumarolic activity at the SW part. Maximum temperature at the SW part of the crater reached 89°C -- nearly the same as measured in July 1993.

Geologic Background. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive edifice covers an area of 500 km2. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

Information Contacts: G. Soto, Guillermo E. Alvarado, and Francisco (Chico) Arias, ICE.


Unzendake (Japan) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Unzendake

Japan

32.761°N, 130.299°E; summit elev. 1483 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Endogenous growth of lava dome; seismicity increases

Endogenous growth of the lava dome continued in March, with no new lava extrusion since late January. The eruption rate has remained at ~50,000 m3/day. Dome growth was toward the N, NW, and W; other parts of the dome remained stable. The spine-like cone that appeared near lobe 12 in February reached an elevation of 1,490 m by early April, 240 m above the crater floor. This cone moved NW in March and W in early April, settling just above the former Jigokuato Crater, from which the first lobe emerged in May 1991. The migrating cone created a depression 20-30 m deep behind it to the E, which was emitting volcanic gas (figure 68). The growing cone consisted of a massive-lava core surrounded by crumbled breccia. The core was composed of older brown lava that had solidified within the dome. Crest line measurements determined by theodolite from the UWS showed that the W part of the dome continued to uplift and move W at a rate of 2-3 m/day. As of 9 April, the peak had move ~80 m W and risen ~ 5-10 m from its location on 6 March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Sketch map of the lava dome at Unzen, early April 1994. Arrows indicate the main direction of pyroclastic flows and rockfalls. Solid and dashed lines represent slope dip directions of new and old talus deposits, respectively. Volcanic gas emission points are shown by "f" symbols. Courtesy of S. Nakada.

Only 10 pyroclastic flows occurred in March, the lowest monthly total since they began in 1991. Some pyroclastic flows generated on 19 March by collapse of part of the dome traveled 1.5 km NNW. Residents living about 4 km from the summit in this direction are not staying in their homes at night. These flows went N because the caldera floor in that direction has now been completely filled by talus. Pyroclastic-flow deposits were

Rockfalls mainly went in the direction of the moving cone, advancing the talus front NW and W at a rate of 2-3 m/day. There is now a thick cover of talus on the Byobu-iwa craters, from which phreatic eruptions took place in February-May 1991. Rockfalls also forced seismic and GPS stations of the SEVO to repeatedly move farther away. Many mirrors installed for EDM measurements near the dome by the GSJ have been destroyed.

Strong deformation extended NW and W of the dome for 50-100 m away from the talus front. The ground had a wavy surface and had been uplifted as high as a few tens of meters. Many open cracks, up to 1 m wide, were radially oriented towards the growing cone; smaller cracks had various orientations. This ground deformation, which began in late January, had ceased by the end of March. EDM measurements revealed that the distance between a point immediately below the dome and a point on the N flank had shortened by about 30 m during February and March.

Microearthquakes increased to a total of 5,110 in March, compared to 1,726 in February. After 20 March, > 200 events/day were recorded.

Geologic Background. The massive Unzendake volcanic complex comprises much of the Shimabara Peninsula east of the city of Nagasaki. An E-W graben, 30-40 km long, extends across the peninsula. Three large stratovolcanoes with complex structures, Kinugasa on the north, Fugen-dake at the east-center, and Kusenbu on the south, form topographic highs on the broad peninsula. Fugendake and Mayuyama volcanoes in the east-central portion of the andesitic-to-dacitic volcanic complex have been active during the Holocene. The Mayuyama lava dome complex, located along the eastern coast west of Shimabara City, formed about 4000 years ago and was the source of a devastating 1792 CE debris avalanche and tsunami. Historical eruptive activity has been restricted to the summit and flanks of Fugendake. The latest activity during 1990-95 formed a lava dome at the summit, accompanied by pyroclastic flows that caused fatalities and damaged populated areas near Shimabara City.

Information Contacts: JMA; S. Nakada, Kyushu Univ.


Veniaminof (United States) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

Veniaminof

United States

56.17°N, 159.38°W; summit elev. 2507 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava emissions from the active cone; short-lived ash bursts

Low-level steam-and-ash plume emissions continued during mid-March along with possible eruptions of lava. Ground observers saw glow near the summit and "sparks" at the vent during the week of 11-18 March. Satellite infrared images (AVHRR NOAA-11, 12; 1.1 km resolution) indicated hot spots on the ground near the vent. These probably represent fresh lava erupting from the volcano's active cone. Ground observers reported short-lived ash-bursts from the caldera's cone on 18-25 March. Poor weather obscured Veniaminof from satellite and ground observers during the last week of March. Although clear weather prevailed . . . in the first half of April, no steam or ash over the volcano was noted by residents of Port Heiden . . . .

Geologic Background. Veniaminof, on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3,700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface.

Information Contacts: AVO.


White Island (New Zealand) — March 1994 Citation iconCite this Report

White Island

New Zealand

37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 321 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small ash eruptions and steam plumes

The lake in Wade Crater was first observed in March 1993. Following an ash-bearing phreatic eruption on 19 October 1993, the crater lake temperature decreased from ~45 to 22°C. By the end of November, lake temperature had again risen to >50°C, the water color was green-yellow, and there was strong bubbling and geyser-like activity near the W shore.

Fieldwork on 14 January 1994 revealed that the lake in Wade Crater had shrunk to a small pond of bubbling gray water at its former W end. Noise from the fumarole in the NW corner of Royce Crater, where a lake was present in early December, was loud enough to cause discomfort without ear protection. The next day, this fumarole emitted brown ash that formed a plume to 200 m above the main crater floor. Ballistic blocks up to 50 cm in diameter were thrown as high as 30 m above the vent. Noise levels were variable, but generally lower in intensity than on the day before. Maximum temperature of the pond, as measured by infrared pyrometer, dropped to 40°C on 15 January from 87°C on the 14th.

By 19 January, a thin layer of khaki-colored ash covered the Main Crater floor near the 1978/90 Crater Complex, and extended as far as peg E, ~380 m SE of the vent (figure 21). The pond in Wade Crater had disappeared, and a blocky tuff cone stood near the former active vent in the NW part of the crater. There was no sign of impact craters, even adjacent to the cone. The primary activity during the visit was geysering from a sludgy pool in the NW corner of Wade Crater. Bright white steam frequently burst through the surface of the pool immediately before upwelling commenced. Based on a strand line, the former lake had only been 2-5 m deep. The divide between Princess and TV1 craters had collapsed further, allowing clear views of the floor of Princess Crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Sketch map of the main crater area of White Island showing crater and peg locations as of 19 January 1994. Contour elevations are in meters. Courtesy of IGNS.

A deformation survey on 19 January suggested that local cooling, withdrawal of underlying brine fluids, and subterranean collapse were still operating beneath the Donald Mound area. Since 2 December 1993 an area centered W of Donald Mound-Donald Duck subsided at a rate similar to December 1992-December 1993 (4-5 mm/month). Possible deflation of ~3 mm SE of Donald Mound since last December, where inflation over the past year had averaged 1.7 mm/month, indicated that recent inferred heating in that area had stopped.

Lakes had reappeared in Wade and Royce craters by 29 January. A very sharp boundary could be seen within the Wade Crater lake. It was gray and steaming on the W side with a maximum temperature of 65°C, but the E side was greenish-yellow with a maximum temperature of 49°C. Steam discharges continued from the large vent at the W end of the crater, but noise levels were lower than on 15 January. A vigorously discharging superheated fumarole was observed on the N crater wall above the lake, but it was too small for a temperature measurement. Heavy rains on 4-5 February caused flash-flooding that stripped a large amount of ash from the surface and caused several landslides. A helicopter pilot noted that the lake level appeared 3-5 m higher, and that there was geysering and vigorous overturning in the lake.

A small eruption on 23 February was observed at about 1012, while scientists were in transit to the island. By 1018, the white, apparently ash-free steam plume had reached an altitude of 2 km (determined by an on-board altimeter), at which point the top of the plume was still vigorously convecting and ascending. Considering the temperature and ebullient nature of the crater lake, and because this was essentially a steam eruption, the vent in the crater lake was considered the most likely source for the eruption. A pulse of orange-brown ash was emitted from the 1978/90 Crater Complex at about 1155, followed by lesser amounts of pale gray ash for the rest of the afternoon. Because the vent area was almost totally obscured by steam, the source vent could not be determined.

The lake in Wade Crater again exhibited the two-tone coloration and similar temperatures as observed on 29 January, although the level was considerably higher. The turbid gray water in the W half of the lake appeared to descend beneath the comparatively suspension-free green water to the E. At least two sources of upwelling were apparent in the hotter gray water. Primary steam sources from the crater included the main fumarolic discharge from the NW part of Royce Crater, and increased discharges from fumaroles on the N wall immediately above the lake. Comments from a helicopter pilot indicated that this change in activity occurred after torrential rains about two weeks earlier. Combined noise levels from the fumaroles were moderate.

A small eruption near the location of a previous fumarole on Donald Mound had formed an elongate crater approximately 1 x 3 m in size and 50 cm deep. Two distinct low-temperature (98°C) discharges issued from this crater, one under high pressure. Preliminary analysis revealed fairly dry output gases with a high N2/Ar ratio of ~1,300. Temperatures at Noisy Nellie fumarole ... were in the 201-208°C range in January and February. Other fumaroles ranged from 98 to 109°C during the same period.

Geologic Background. Uninhabited 2 x 2.4 km White Island, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is the emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes; the summit crater appears to be breached to the SE, because the shoreline corresponds to the level of several notches in the SE crater wall. Volckner Rocks, four sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NNE. Intermittent moderate phreatomagmatic and strombolian eruptions have occurred throughout the short historical period beginning in 1826, but its activity also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. Formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries has produced rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project.

Information Contacts: B. Christenson and B. Scott, IGNS, Wairakei.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).