Report on Cotopaxi (Ecuador) — 17 August-23 August 2005
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 17 August-23 August 2005
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2005. Report on Cotopaxi (Ecuador). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 17 August-23 August 2005. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
0.677°S, 78.436°W; summit elev. 5911 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
A seismic anomaly that began at Cotopaxi in late July continued through 14 August. During this period, there was an increase in the number of long-period earthquakes in comparison to previous months. The earthquakes were less than M 3 and occurred at depths between 1 and 2 km below the volcano. Several of the earthquakes correlated with increases in the volume of fumarole emissions in the crater. No carbon dioxide was detected when measurements were made during 8-14 August.
Geologic Background. Symmetrical, glacier-clad Cotopaxi stratovolcano is Ecuador's most well-known volcano and one of its most active. The steep-sided cone is capped by nested summit craters, the largest of which is about 550 x 800 m in diameter. Deep valleys scoured by lahars radiate from the summit of the andesitic volcano, and large andesitic lava flows extend to its base. The modern conical edifice has been constructed since a major collapse sometime prior to about 5000 years ago. Pyroclastic flows (often confused in historical accounts with lava flows) have accompanied many explosive eruptions, and lahars have frequently devastated adjacent valleys. The most violent historical eruptions took place in 1744, 1768, and 1877. Pyroclastic flows descended all sides of the volcano in 1877, and lahars traveled more than 100 km into the Pacific Ocean and western Amazon basin. The last significant eruption took place in 1904.