Kerinci

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  • Volcanic Region
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  • Last Known Eruption
  • 1.697°S
  • 101.264°E

  • 3800 m
    12464 ft

  • 261170
  • Latitude
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Most Recent Weekly Report: 22 April-28 April 2009


CVGHM reported that diffuse white plumes from Kerinci typically rise about 300 m above the crater. On 9 September 2007 the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) because "black smoke" plumes rose 800 m above the crater. The height of the plumes (described as "smoke") declined, but remained variable, so the Alert Level continued at 2. On 24 March 2008, ash-and-gas plumes rose to 4.3 km (14,100 ft) a.s.l. In early April 2009, increased seismicity was accompanied by ash plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the crater. During 1-20 April, light and dark plumes rose to a maximum of 500 m above the crater. On 19 April, ashfall was reported at a nearby observation post. During 19-20 April, noises indicative of an eruption were heard at the observation post. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: December 2009 (BGVN 34:12)


Eruptions, ash plumes, and seismicity during 1-21 April 2009

Since a 2004 eruption, Kerinci had been relatively quiet except for ash plumes in September 2007 and ash and steam plumes in February, March, and May 2008 (BGVN 33:05). Eruptions sent ash plumes hundreds of meters above the crater during the first three weeks of April 2009, causing ashfall 8 km away. A report on this period by the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) noted that the active crater normally emits whitish plumes ~300 m above the peak. During September 2007 through at least 21 April 2009 the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors have been advised to remain at least 1 km from the summit and to don masks in cases of heavy ashfall.

According to CVGHM, seismicity also increased at Kerinci during the first three weeks of April 2009. The signals were generally dominated by those from eruptions and their associated seismically detected signals traveling through air (as opposed to rock), 'air blasts.' The daily average of air blasts was 38, with the daily maximum reaching 54. The amplitudes of eruptive earthquake signals were 5-49 mm; the amplitudes of the air blasts were 0.5-9 mm. In addition, earthquakes during this 3-week period also included those of deep volcanic origin on 9 and 10 April (1 per day).

The increased seismicity was accompanied by steam-, ash-, or cinder-bearing plumes, sometimes dense, that rose as high as 500-600 m above the crater. On 3 April an eruption reached ~500 m above the crater; variable plumes continued through 12 April. A nearby observation post reported the rumbling of eruptions and ashfall during 19-20 April that extended as much as 8 km from the crater.

The eruptions deposited loose material (ash, cinders, lapilli, volcanic bombs, etc.) along the volcano's slope that leads to a nearby river. CVGHM was concerned that a heavy rain in the vicinity of the volcano could pick up this loose material and cause a lahar along the river channel.

Satellite thermal monitoring using MODVOLC during 2009 recorded over 25 alerts at Kerinci between 29 April and 19 June 2009.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MODVOLC, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).

Index of Weekly Reports


2009: April
2008: February | March | May
2007: September
2004: June | July | August | September
2002: January | August
2001: August | September | November | December

Weekly Reports


22 April-28 April 2009

CVGHM reported that diffuse white plumes from Kerinci typically rise about 300 m above the crater. On 9 September 2007 the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) because "black smoke" plumes rose 800 m above the crater. The height of the plumes (described as "smoke") declined, but remained variable, so the Alert Level continued at 2. On 24 March 2008, ash-and-gas plumes rose to 4.3 km (14,100 ft) a.s.l. In early April 2009, increased seismicity was accompanied by ash plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the crater. During 1-20 April, light and dark plumes rose to a maximum of 500 m above the crater. On 19 April, ashfall was reported at a nearby observation post. During 19-20 April, noises indicative of an eruption were heard at the observation post. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


7 May-13 May 2008

CVGHM reported that seismic and surface activity from Kerinci increased during 10-11 May. White plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.5 km (14,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 11 May, a gray plume was possibly spotted. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


26 March-1 April 2008

CVGHM reported that seismicity from Kerinci increased during 17-24 March. On 24 March, an ash-and-gas plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 (14,100 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


20 February-26 February 2008

CVGHM reported that white plumes from Kerinci rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.3 km (13,500-14,100 ft) a.s.l. during 14-18 February. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


5 September-11 September 2007

CVGHM reported that the Alert Status of Kerinci was raised on 9 September from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


22 September-28 September 2004

A pilot reported to the Darwin VAAC that an ash cloud emitted from Kerinci was visible on 27 September at 0813 drifting W at a height of ~6 km a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


4 August-10 August 2004

Increased volcanic activity at Kerinci during late July led DVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 2 from 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 6 August.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation


28 July-3 August 2004

During 24-31 July, volcanic and seismic activity increased at Kerinci. An ash plume rose 100-600 m above the crater rim and drifted W. Ash was deposited up to 1 cm thick and as far away as 3 km from the crater. There was an increase in volcanic earthquakes during the report week in comparison to the previous week. Visitors were advised not to climb to the volcano's peak until activity decreased.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


16 June-22 June 2004

According to the Darwin VAAC, on 22 June an ash plume from Kerinci was observed drifting W at a height of ~3.8 km a.s.l. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


21 August-27 August 2002

During 5-18 August, seismicity at Kerinci was dominated by small explosion earthquakes. According to the Darwin VAAC, on 27 August at 1000 an ash plume was observed at a height of ~3.5 km a.s.l. drifting to the NW. The cloud was not visible on satellite imagery.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


7 August-13 August 2002

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 August around 0925 an ash plume from Kerinci rose to ~7.3 km a.s.l. Ash was not visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


30 January-5 February 2002

During 21-27 January, seismicity at Kerinci seemed to decrease in comparison to the previous week. Seismicity was dominated by 391 small explosions. Minor explosions on 26 January produced plumes 100-600 m above the summit. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


2 January-8 January 2002

Seismicity decreased during 30 December-6 January at Kerinci, with 341 small explosions occurring. In addition, plumes only reached 50-100 m above the summit in comparison to 100-800 m the previous week. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


26 December-1 January 2002

Three explosions occurred at Kerinci during 19 and 25 December that produced predominately E-drifting plumes 100-800 m above the volcano. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


28 November-4 December 2001

During 26 November- 2 December seismicity was dominated by 664 small explosion earthquakes. White, thick plumes rose 50-300 m above the volcano, which remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


19 September-25 September 2001

The number of small explosion earthquakes at Kerinci increased to 2,281 during 10-16 September from 1,128 the previous week. Steam plumes rose to 600 m above the volcano, which remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4)

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


12 September-18 September 2001

During 3-9 September activity at Kerinci was dominated by 1,128 small explosion earthquakes. On 9 September during 0800-1200 small explosions produced ash plumes that rose to 0.5 km above the volcano. Kerinci remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


29 August-4 September 2001

During 13-26 August eruptive activity ceased and seismic activity was dominated by small explosion earthquakes (2,252). The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


22 August-28 August 2001

On 9 August a small explosion at Kerinci produced an ash cloud that rose 700 m above the summit. Workers in rice fields around the volcano heard a booming sound and VSI personnel saw the dark brown ash cloud drift to the NNE. During 30 July-12 August seismographs recorded 990 small explosion events. The volcano was at Alert Level 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

03/1987 (SEAN 12:03) Fumarolic emissions containing SO2 from crater floor

11/1996 (BGVN 21:11) Seismic signals and some ash-bearing plumes

08/1998 (BGVN 23:08) Plume rises to 2 km on 4 July

10/1998 (BGVN 23:10) Rumbling, ash, and sulfur smell on 3 November

08/1999 (BGVN 24:08) Continuous tremor in June, black ash eruptions in July

02/2001 (BGVN 26:02) Gas-and-steam plumes and explosion earthquakes, February to mid-October 2000

12/2001 (BGVN 26:12) Minor explosions, ash plumes, and seismicity from May 2001 through early 2002

04/2002 (BGVN 27:04) Small explosion earthquakes dominate, plumes 600 m above summit

08/2002 (BGVN 27:08) Continuous small explosions during May through early September 2002

12/2002 (BGVN 27:12) Continuous emissions through December 2002

08/2004 (BGVN 29:08) Dark ash plumes in late July-early August 2004

01/2005 (BGVN 30:01) 27 September 2004 ash plumes to 6 km altitude; thick gray plumes during October 2004

05/2008 (BGVN 33:05) Occasional steam plumes in 2007-2008; ash emission on 9 September 2007

12/2009 (BGVN 34:12) Eruptions, ash plumes, and seismicity during 1-21 April 2009




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


03/1987 (SEAN 12:03) Fumarolic emissions containing SO2 from crater floor

Kerinci . . . was visited by a team of climbers 28-29 March. A white plume containing SO2 was continuously emitted from numerous fumaroles on the crater floor, 400 m below the summit.

Information Contacts: T. Casadevall and A. Wight, USGS Bandung.
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11/1996 (BGVN 21:11) Seismic signals and some ash-bearing plumes

Seismic signals during August through 20 September (1- 10 mm amplitude) arrived at ~5-minute intervals. This behavior preceded ash-bearing emissions up to 800 m above the summit, ~4x higher than those normally seen. By the end of September, both the seismic signals and emissions dropped, the latter reaching ~600 m high.

Activity continued to decrease during October. White vapor was released from the crater and rose 800 m with occasional small explosions. During October seismic signals had a maximum amplitude of 7 mm.

Information Contacts: Wimpy S. Tjetjep, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: vsimvo@ibm.net).
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08/1998 (BGVN 23:08) Plume rises to 2 km on 4 July

Activity increased beginning on 4 July. A gray-to-black plume escaped the summit crater under high pressure around noon. Local residents heard a noise similar to cannon-fire. The cloud rose 800-2,000 m above the summit. The eruption ended about 1700. On 5 July the volcano had resumed its normal level of activity; the plume reached heights of 100-400 m above the summit.

Information Contacts: R. Sukhyar, Director, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Bandung, Indonesia (Email: sukhyar@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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10/1998 (BGVN 23:10) Rumbling, ash, and sulfur smell on 3 November

Increasing activity culminated in an eruption on 3 November. In the early afternoon the volcano rumbled three times and ash covered the nearby village of Palempok. Residents also noticed a strong sulfur smell. Rumbling was heard twice on 6 November by residents of Tangkil and Palempok. Unfortunately, the seismograph used to monitor the volcano had been inoperative since 3 November.

Information Contacts: R. Sukhyar, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Bandung, Indonesia (Email: sukhyar@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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08/1999 (BGVN 24:08) Continuous tremor in June, black ash eruptions in July

The intensity of eruption at Kerinci varied during April and May. White or gray ash plumes rose up to 700 m above the summit on many days during these months. Periodic increases and decreases in both volcanic and tectonic earthquakes were recorded.

In June the number of daily volcanic earthquakes increased and the ash erupted from the summit became darker in color. During the week of 22-28 June, volcanologists noticed that the ash column rose 600 m above the summit under strong gas pressure and that the summit topography changed. On 28 June tremor became continuous and at 0630 on 29 June an ash column rose 1,000 m above the summit under strong gas pressure. Increased ash emissions and nearly continuous tremor continued for several weeks.

Two eruptions of dark brown and black ash rose 800 m above the summit on 21 July. Black ash was vigorously ejected on 23 July. The ash from this eruption drifted eastward in a billowing cloud. Ash erupted on 28 July fell on nearby villages and farms. During August activity slowly decreased in intensity: tremor resumed normal levels and periods of duration, and emissions were a more normal dense white color. Eruption plumes rose to heights of 100-500 m. This calmer activity persisted through September.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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02/2001 (BGVN 26:02) Gas-and-steam plumes and explosion earthquakes, February to mid-October 2000

Persistent fumarolic activity occurred at Kerinci during February to mid-October 2000. During the report period Kerinci mainly produced light-colored, variably dense gas-and-steam plumes that rose 50-600 m. Plumes were occasionally reported to darken and become dense between 29 February and 20 March, possibly indicating ash emission, although no ashfall was reported. Small explosion earthquakes, usually related to gas discharge, dominated seismicity throughout the interval with an average of ~240 events recorded per week. These earthquakes were continuous during late April to mid-May. Consistent numbers of deep volcanic (A-type), shallow volcanic (B-type), and tectonic earthquakes occurred throughout the period. During the report interval no major eruptions were observed, and Kerinci's hazard status did not exceed 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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12/2001 (BGVN 26:12) Minor explosions, ash plumes, and seismicity from May 2001 through early 2002

During May 2001 through at least early January 2002, seismic activity at Kerinci was dominated by small explosion earthquakes. Plumes were visible above the summit and generally drifted E throughout most of the report period (table 1). Minor explosions occurred and on 9 August an explosion was accompanied by a booming sound heard by people working in rice fields around the volcano. At 0925 the same day a brown, high-pressure plume was observed reaching 700 m above the summit. The plume was visible drifting NNE for ~5 minutes.

Table 1. Seismicity at Kerinci during 7 May 2001 through 6 January 2002. The left-hand column shows time intervals; the adjacent four columns indicate the number of earthquakes or maximum tremor amplitudes seen during the time intervals; the right-hand column adds comments about plume heights. Courtesy VSI.

    Date                  Deep    Shallow     Small     Tectonic  Plume color
                        volcanic  volcanic  explosion             & Height

    07 May-13 May 2001      1         1        436          4     White-thick;
                                                                  800 m
    14 May-20 May 2001      2         3        973          6
    28 May-03 Jun 2001     --         7         47         12     Gray;
                                                                  100-800 m
    04 Jun-10 Jun 2001      4        --         24          7
      Gray; 100-300 m
    11 Jun-17 Jun 2001     --         4     continuous      6
      Gray; 100-500 m
    18 Jun-24 Jun 2001      2         1     continuous      9     Gray;
                                                                  100-1000 m
    25 Jun-01 Jul 2001      1         3     continuous     10     White thin-
                                                                  thick; 500 m
    02 Jul-08 Jul 2001     --        --        360         10
    30 Jul-12 Aug 2001      6         6        990         16     Brown; 700 m
    13 Aug-26 Aug 2001      1         6       2252         10     White-brown;
                                                                  500 m
    27 Aug-02 Sep 2001      1         2        971          9     Gray; 400 m
    03 Sep-09 Sep 2001      1         1       1128          9     Gray; 500 m
    10 Sep-16 Sep 2001      5         6       2281          5     Gray; 600 m
    17 Sep-23 Sep 2001      3         4        920          6     Gray; 300 m
    24 Sep-30 Sep 2001      2         6       1162          6     White-thick;
                                                                  500 m
    01 Oct-07 Oct 2001      2         1       1187          3     White-thick;
                                                                  400 m
    08 Oct-14 Oct 2001     --         6        219          7     White-thick;
                                                                  700 m
    15 Oct-21 Oct 2001      1         1     continuous      7     White-thick;
                                                                  700 m
    22 Oct-28 Oct 2001      1        11     continuous      4     White-thick;
                                                                  300 m
    29 Oct-04 Nov 2001      4         6     continuous      3     White-thick;
                                                                  400 m
    05 Nov-11 Nov 2001      1         2        310          3     White-thick;
                                                                  50-300 m
    12 Nov-18 Nov 2001      1         3        329          9     White-thick;
                                                                  50-300 m
    19 Nov-25 Nov 2001      3         1     continuous      4     White-thick;
                                                                  50-500 m
    26 Nov-02 Dec 2001      1        --        664          3     White-thick;
                                                                  50-300 m
    03 Dec-09 Dec 2001     --        --        736         10     50-400 m
    17 Dec-30 Dec 2001      6         4     continuous      9     Gray;
                                                                  100-800 m
    30 Dec-06 Jan 2002      1        --        341         13     White;
                                                                  50-100 m

Eruptive activity stopped briefly during mid-August. During 0800-1200 on 9 September, explosive activity produced a brown ash plume that rose 500 m above the summit. Gas pressure was low in early November and seismic activity decreased slightly. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4) throughout the report period.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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04/2002 (BGVN 27:04) Small explosion earthquakes dominate, plumes 600 m above summit

During January-May 2002, seismic activity at Kerinci was dominated by small explosion earthquakes. Plumes reached up to 600 m above the summit (table 2). An explosion during 0950-1030 on 4 May produced ash that rose 400 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 throughout the report period.

Table 2. Seismicity and plume observations at Kerinci during 7 January through 19 May 2002. Courtesy VSI.

    Date (2002)       Deep     Shallow      Small     Tectonic
                    volcanic   volcanic   explosion
        Plume observations

    07 Jan-13 Jan       4          3         263          3
        White thin-thick medium-pressure plume rose 50-100 m and drifted E.
    14 Jan-20 Jan      --         --         409          7
    21 Jan-27 Jan       4         --         391         13
        A minor explosion on 26 January produced a dark gray plume that rose
        ~100-600 m above the summit.
    28 Jan-03 Feb       1         --         630          9
        Gray plume reached 500 m above the summit.
    04 Feb-10 Feb      --          4         461         10
        A minor explosion on 8 February produced a thick gray ash plume that
        rose 500 m above the summit.
    11 Feb-17 Feb       1         --         172          2
        White thick plume rose 50-300 m.
    18 Feb-24 Feb       1         --         133          6
        White thick plume 50-300 m above the summit.
    25 Feb-03 Mar      --          1         628          4
        White thick plume 50-300 m above the summit.
    03 Mar-10 Mar      --         --         673         --
        White thick medium-pressure plume 50-400 m above the summit.
    11 Mar-17 Mar      --         --      continuous      6
        White thick medium-pressure plume 50-500 m above the summit.
    18 Mar-24 Mar       1          3      continuous      5
        White brown thick plume ~100-500 m above the summit; drifted E.
    25 Mar-31 Mar      --          1      continuous      8
        White brown thick medium-high pressure plume 100-500 m above the
        summit; drifted E.
    01 Apr-07 Apr       4          2         294          6
        White-brownish medium-high pressure plume 100-500 m above the summit;
        drifted E.
    08 Apr-14 Apr       1          1         262          4
        White thick darkish medium-high pressure plume 50-300 m above the
        summit; drifted E.
    15 Apr-21 Apr       1         --         272          7
        White thick medium-high pressure plume rose 50-500 m above the summit;
        drifted E.
    22 Apr-28 Apr       1          0         352          8
        White thin-thick medium-high pressure plume rose 50-400 m above the
        summit.
    29 Apr-05 May       3          0      continuous      6
        White-brownish ash plume rose 400 m above the summit.
    06 May-12 May       3          2      continuous      1
    13 May-19 May       1          2         285          8

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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08/2002 (BGVN 27:08) Continuous small explosions during May through early September 2002

During 27 May-8 September 2002, seismicity at Kerinci was dominated by continuous small explosion earthquakes. Plumes reached up to 800 m above the summit (table 3). The Alert Level remained at 2 throughout the report period.

Table 3. Earthquakes reported at Kerinci during 27 May-8 September 2002. Continuous small explosions were reported throughout the report period. Courtesy VSI.

    Date           Deep      Shallow   Tectonic  Plume details
    (2002)         volcanic  volcanic            (heights are above
                   (A-type)  (B-type)             the summit)

    27 May-02 Jun    NR        NR         NR     Low-pressure plume reached
                                                   600 m and drifted W.
    03 Jun-09 Jun     1         2          2     Whitish-gray, thick, low-
                                                   pressure plume reached 700
                                                   m and drifted W.
    10 Jun-16 Jun     3         1         10     Whitish-gray, thick, medium-
                                                   pressure plume rose 700-800
                                                   m.
    17 Jun-23 Jun     1         8         16     Whitish-gray, thick, medium-
                                                   pressure plume rose 100-500
                                                   m and drifted W.
    24 Jun-30 Jun     7         1          7     Whitish-gray, thick, medium-
                                                   pressure plume rose 100-500
                                                   m and drifted W.
    01 Jul-07 Jul     3         1          3     White ash plume rose 50-500 m
                                                   and drifted W.
    08 Jul-14 Jul     1         2          3     Whitish-gray ash plume rose
                                                   100-500 m and drifted E.
    15 Jul-21 Jul     2         2          0     Whitish-gray ash plume rose
                                                   100-400 m and drifted E.
    22 Jul-28 Jul     3         1          3     Whitish-gray ash plume rose
                                                   100-400 m and drifted E.
    29 Jul-04 Aug     0         0          4     White thin-thick ash plume
                                                   rose 100-300 m and drifted
                                                   W.
    05 Aug-11 Aug     8         0          5     White thin-thick ash plume
                                                   rose 100-300 m and drifted
                                                   W.
    12 Aug-18 Aug     2         3          5     White thin-thick ash plume
                                                   rose 100-300 m and drifted
                                                   E.
    19 Aug-25 Aug     2         1          5     White, thin, medium-pressure
                                                   ash plume rose 100-400 m
                                                   and drifted E.
    26 Aug-01 Sep     3         0          2     Whitish-gray, thin, medium-
                                                   pressure ash plume rose
                                                   100-500 m and drifted S.
    02 Sep-08 Sep     0         3          7     White, thin-medium, medium-
                                                   pressure ash plume rose
                                                   100-300 m and drifted S.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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12/2002 (BGVN 27:12) Continuous emissions through December 2002

Emissions were continuous through at least late October 2002 (table 4). During most of the period 9 September-27 October a "white-thin ash plume" rose 50-400 m and drifted toward the W or SW. No ashfall was reported. Kerinci remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4). No further reports were issued during 2002.

Table 4. Earthquakes registered at Kerinci during 9 September-27 October 2002. Courtesy VSI.

    Date (2002)       B-type      Emission     Tectonic
                     volcanic

    09 Sep-15 Sep        3       Continuous        7
    16 Sep-22 Sep        4       Continuous        8
    23 Sep-29 Sep        1       Continuous        5
    30 Sep-06 Oct        1       Continuous        4
    07 Oct-13 Oct        2       Continuous       16
    14 Oct-20 Oct       --       Continuous        2
    21 Oct-27 Oct       --       Continuous       --

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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08/2004 (BGVN 29:08) Dark ash plumes in late July-early August 2004

Although frequently active, the most recent eruptive period at Kerinci had ended by late 2002 (BGVN 27:08 and 27:12). A new eruptive episode was reported by the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (DVGHM) starting in late July. However, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) issued an advisory on 22 June after receiving a report of ash from Kerinci at ~ 3.8 km altitude (summit level) drifting W; no ash was visible on satellite imagery.

During 24-31 July 2004 observers reported seeing a "white, thick blackish" plume rising 100-600 m above the crater rim and drifting WSW. Ashfall deposits as thick as 1 cm were identified at distances of 3 km from the summit. The number of volcanic earthquakes recorded rose during this week and remained high through the week ending on 8 August (table 5). Another eruption on the morning of 6 August sent a gray ash plume 600 m above the summit. Based on the increased activity, DVGHM raised the hazard status to Alert Level II (yellow).

Table 5. Seismicity at Kerinci, 12 July-29 August 2004. Courtesy of DVGHM.

    Date (2004)    Volcanic A    Volcanic B    Local Tectonic    Emission

    12 Jul-18 Jul      2             1               --          continuous
    19 Jul-25 Jul      5             3                2          continuous
    26 Jul-01 Aug      6             3                1          continuous
    02 Aug-08 Aug      5             2                2          continuous
    09 Aug-15 Aug      1             1               --          continuous
    16 Aug-22 Aug      2             2               --          continuous
    23 Aug-29 Aug     --             1               --          continuous

Volcanic earthquakes decreased during 9-15 August, although continuous emission signals were still being recorded and thin white plumes were seen rising 50-300 m above the summit. Similar activity continued the following week. A thick gray plume rising 50 m was reported the week of 23-29 August, but there was no change in seismicity.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Hetty Triastuty, Nia Haerani, and Sri Kisyati, Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id/), URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).
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01/2005 (BGVN 30:01) 27 September 2004 ash plumes to 6 km altitude; thick gray plumes during October 2004

Events at Kerinci were previously discussed through 29 August 2004 (BGVN 29:08). The following report overlaps slightly, covering 17 July through 24 October 2004. As already reported, on 24 July 2004 a thick plume rose to 100-600 m above the crater rim, ash fell ~ 3 km from the crater forming deposits as thick as 1 cm. Seismicity is summarized in table 6.

Table 6. Volcanic seismicity registered at Kerinci during 17 July to 24 October 2004. Courtesy of DVGHM.

    Date (2004)      Volcanic A    Volcanic B    Emission

    17 Jul-24 Jul        2             1          0.5-3
    24 Jul-31 Jul       5-6            3          0.5-5
    02 Aug-08 Aug        5             2         continue
    09 Aug-15 Aug        1             1         continue
    16 Aug-22 Aug        2             2         continue
    23 Aug-29 Aug       --             1         continue

    27 Sep-03 Oct        5             1         continue
    04 Oct-10 Oct       --             1         continue
    11 Oct-17 Oct       --             2         continue
    18 Oct-24 Oct        3             2         continue

There were six Darwin VAAC reports on Kerinci in 2004, two on 21 June and four on 27 September. (Prior to that the VAAC reports were clustered in mid- to late-August 2002.) The 21 June cases discussed a continuous emission with ash to ~ 4 km drifting W. The 27 September cases began with and then repeated an aviator's statement (an AIREP at 0136 UTC 27 September), noting that ash was observed to ~ 6 km, drifting W. For all six cases (June and September), the VAAC staff noted that due to cloud cover, ash was not visible in satellite data.

Kerinci erupted on 6 August 2004 at 0835 hours. Gray ash rose to 50-600 m above the summit. The hazard status was raised to Alert Level II (yellow) at 1030, where it stayed for the remainder of this report period.

During 9-15 August 2004 the number of earthquakes decreased. A white thin plume again rose to 50-300 m above the summit. Volcanic activity remained relatively stable from 15 August through 24 October 2004, with thick gray plumes rising 50-300 m above the summit.

Information Contacts: Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (DVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).
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05/2008 (BGVN 33:05) Occasional steam plumes in 2007-2008; ash emission on 9 September 2007

Kerinci last erupted on 6 August 2004. Following that, the volcano was relatively quiet through January 2005 (BGVN 30:01). This report discusses events through 11 May 2008. Satellite thermal imaging has not shown any "hot-spots" for the past several years, but the behavior there has been characterized by emissions of billows of thin white smoke that rose to ~ 200 m above the crater.

On 8 September 2007, a number of minor seismic events occurred. On 9 September, vapor emissions increased, pulsing at ~ 5-minute intervals, and accompanied by inky black ash. The plume rose ~ 700-800 m above the crater rim and ash fell within ~ 8 km of the vent.

The Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported that the Alert Status was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were not permitted to approach the crater closer than 1 km.

Activity in the following months did not show any significantly abnormal behavior until 14-18 February 2008, when more voluminous thick white plumes rose ~ 500 m above the crater rim.

According to CVGHM, the seismicity increased during 17-24 March 2008. On 24 March, an ash-and-gas plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km. Another increase in seismicity occurred during 10-11 May, when thick white plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.5 km and drifted E. The Alert Status remained at 2.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).
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12/2009 (BGVN 34:12) Eruptions, ash plumes, and seismicity during 1-21 April 2009

Since a 2004 eruption, Kerinci had been relatively quiet except for ash plumes in September 2007 and ash and steam plumes in February, March, and May 2008 (BGVN 33:05). Eruptions sent ash plumes hundreds of meters above the crater during the first three weeks of April 2009, causing ashfall 8 km away. A report on this period by the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) noted that the active crater normally emits whitish plumes ~300 m above the peak. During September 2007 through at least 21 April 2009 the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors have been advised to remain at least 1 km from the summit and to don masks in cases of heavy ashfall.

According to CVGHM, seismicity also increased at Kerinci during the first three weeks of April 2009. The signals were generally dominated by those from eruptions and their associated seismically detected signals traveling through air (as opposed to rock), 'air blasts.' The daily average of air blasts was 38, with the daily maximum reaching 54. The amplitudes of eruptive earthquake signals were 5-49 mm; the amplitudes of the air blasts were 0.5-9 mm. In addition, earthquakes during this 3-week period also included those of deep volcanic origin on 9 and 10 April (1 per day).

The increased seismicity was accompanied by steam-, ash-, or cinder-bearing plumes, sometimes dense, that rose as high as 500-600 m above the crater. On 3 April an eruption reached ~500 m above the crater; variable plumes continued through 12 April. A nearby observation post reported the rumbling of eruptions and ashfall during 19-20 April that extended as much as 8 km from the crater.

The eruptions deposited loose material (ash, cinders, lapilli, volcanic bombs, etc.) along the volcano's slope that leads to a nearby river. CVGHM was concerned that a heavy rain in the vicinity of the volcano could pick up this loose material and cause a lahar along the river channel.

Satellite thermal monitoring using MODVOLC during 2009 recorded over 25 alerts at Kerinci between 29 April and 19 June 2009.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MODVOLC, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/).
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The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. Kerinci is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. The volcano contains a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit of Kerinci. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. The frequently active Gunung Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2009 Apr 1 (?) 2009 Jun 19 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2008 Mar 24 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2007 Sep 9 2007 Sep 9 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2004 Jun 22 (?) 2004 Oct 24 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2001 May 12 2002 Aug 27 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1999 Mar (in or before) 1999 Sep (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1998 Nov 3 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1998 Jul 4 1998 Jul 4 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1996 Aug 1996 Oct (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1990 Dec 31 ± 365 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1971 Jun ] [ 1971 Jun ] Uncertain 1  
1969 1970 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1968 Feb 3 1968 Mar 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1967 Nov 2 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1966 Jun 9 1966 Jun 30 (in or after) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1964 Jul 8 1964 Jul 8 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1963 Jul Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1960 Jul Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1952 Jan 1952 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1938 Jan 19 1938 Mar 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1937 Sep 8 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1936 Aug 30 1936 Aug 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1936 Apr 29 1936 Apr 29 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1923 Sep 1923 Sep Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1921 May 1921 Jun Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1908 Oct 1909 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1887 Mar 23 1887 Mar 30 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1878 Dec 11 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1874 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1842 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1838 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Korinci | Indrapura, Peak of | Gadang, Gunung | Berapi | Kerintji | Koerinci | Koerintji | Korintji

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Buntak, Bukit Cone 1250 m 1° 37' 0" S 101° 15' 0" E

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Berapi-Elok Crater 3655 m
Kerinci, Indonesia's highest volcano, rises to 3800 m above tea plantations on the south. A steam plume rises from the summit, which consists of an unvegetated cone containing a 600-m-wide, steep-walled summit crater over 400 m deep with a crater lake at the bottom. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from Kerinci, one of Sumatra's most active volcanoes.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
A commerical flight above the Padang Highlands of central Sumatra provides a view of a steam plume rising from the summit crater of Kerinci, Indonesia's highest volcano.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Conical Kerinci volcano towers above tea plantations below its southern flank. The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci is the most prominent feature of the massive Kerinci-Seblat Reserve. The Reserve stretches along a 345 km section of the mountainous spine of Sumatra and is the home of most of the larger Sumatran mammals, including rhinos, tigers, tapirs, elephants, clouded leopards, and sun bears. A steam plume commonly rises from the summit crater of Kerinci, one of the most active volcanoes in Sumatra.

Photo by D. Rochendi, 1984 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The steep-walled, 600-m-wide summit crater of Kerinci volcano is seen from its southern rim. The crater, which caps Indonesia's highest volcano, is 450 m deep and is often contains a small lake.

Photo by S. Wikartadipura, 1972 (published in Kusumadinata, 1979, "Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia").
The unvegetated summit of 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra, Indonesia's highest volcano, is seen from Pengamatan on its southern flank. Kerinci is one of the most active volcanoes in Sumatra and has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction.

Photo by Umar Rosadi, 2005 (Centre of Volcanology & Geological Hazard Mitigation, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Rosidi H M D, Tjokrosapoetro S, Pendowo B, 1976. Geologic map of the Painan and northeastern part of the Muarasiberut quadrangles, Sumatra. Geol Surv Indonesia, 1:250,000 scale.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
304
33,878
264,107
1,437,454

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Kerinci Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.