Galunggung

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  • Indonesia
  • Java
  • Stratovolcano
  • 1984 CE
  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 7.25°S
  • 108.058°E

  • 2168 m
    7111 ft

  • 263140
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

23 May-29 May 2012

CVGHM reported that, since the Alert Level was raised on 12 February, seismic activity at Galunggung had drastically decreased through 27 May. During 27 April-27 May plants around the crater area looked green and lush, small fish were swimming in the water, and insects around the crater were active. Based on seismic data, crater lake water temperature and pH data, and visual observations, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 28 May.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM



 Available Weekly Reports


2012: February | May
2008: July
2002: August


23 May-29 May 2012

CVGHM reported that, since the Alert Level was raised on 12 February, seismic activity at Galunggung had drastically decreased through 27 May. During 27 April-27 May plants around the crater area looked green and lush, small fish were swimming in the water, and insects around the crater were active. Based on seismic data, crater lake water temperature and pH data, and visual observations, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 28 May.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


8 February-14 February 2012

On 13 February, CVGHM reported that from September 2011 to 8 February 2012 discolorations in the crater lake water at Galunggung were observed. In addition, a sudden increase in water temperature was measured, from 27 degrees Celsius on 5 February to 40 degrees on 8 February. Based on seismic data and crater lake observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 February and recommended staying at least 500 m away from the lake shore.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


16 July-22 July 2008

Based on a pilot report and inconclusive observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 July a possible ash plume from Galunggung rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. CVGHM did not report eruptive activity and advised that the activity status was "normal."

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


28 August-3 September 2002

Reports that an eruption occurred at Galunggung on 23 August were incorrect. A brushfire near the volcano led observers to believe that an eruption was occurring.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) also known CVGHM


21 August-27 August 2002

Based on information from a pilot report, the Darwin VAAC stated that an eruption at Galunggung on 23 August at 1748 produced a W-drifting low-level plume. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1984 Jan 9 1984 Jan 31 (?) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1982 Apr 5 1983 Jan 8 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations New crater at Gunung Jadi location
1918 Jul 17 1918 Jul 30 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Gunung Jadi
1894 Oct 17 1894 Dec Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1822 Oct 8 1822 Dec 1 ± 30 days Confirmed 5 Historical Observations
[ 0850 ± 50 years ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
2250 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Bronto S, 1989. Volcanic geology of Galunggung, West Java, Indonesia. Unpublished PhD thesis, Univ Canterbury, 490 p.

Gourgaud A, Thouret J-C, Bourdier J-L, 2000. Stratigraphy and textural characteristics of the 1982-1983 tephra of Galunggung volcano (Indonesia): implications for volcanic hazards. J Volc Geotherm Res, 104: 169-186.

Juwarna H, Wirakusumah A D, Soetoyo, Bronto S, 1986. Geologic map of Galunggung volcano, West Java. Volc Surv Indonesia, 1:50,000 geol map.

Katili J A, Sudradjat A, 1984b. Galunggung: the 1982-1983 eruption. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 102 p.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

The forested slopes of 2168-m-high Galunggung volcano in western Java are cut by a large horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to the SE that has served to channel the products of recent eruptions in that direction. The "Ten Thousand Hills of Tasikmalaya" dotting the plain below the volcano are debris-avalanche hummocks from the collapse that formed the breached caldera about 4200 years ago. Although historical eruptions, restricted to the central vent near the caldera headwall, have been infrequent, they have caused much devastation. The first historical eruption in 1822 produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that killed over 4000 persons. More recently, a strong explosive eruption during 1982-1983 caused severe economic disruption to populated areas near the volcano.