Guadalupe

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 29.07°N
  • 118.28°W

  • 1100 m
    3608 ft

  • 341006
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Guadalupe.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Guadalupe.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Guadalupe.

Elongated Guadalupe Island lies atop a fossil oceanic ridge crest about 300 km west of Baja California. The seamount, which rises above the Pacific Ocean surface to an elevation of 1100 m, contains two shield volcanoes, the northern of which is the youngest. Chains of cinder cones constructed along fissures oriented both NW-SE and NE-SW and associated lava flows overlie both shield volcanoes. The longest of these fissures cuts across the caldera of the northern volcano and extends beyond it to the SE. Other pyroclastic cones were constructed along an arcuate fissure near the southern caldera rim. The shield volcanoes and products of the fissure eruptions form a complete alkali basaltic-to-trachytic series reflecting a transition from submarine to subaerial volcanism. The 1100-m-high northern basaltic shield volcano was considered to be of Holocene age (Medina et al. 1989). Trachytic lava domes are found within the caldera of the northern shield volcano, and together with very fresh-looking alkali basalt lava flows, form the youngest volcanic rocks on the island.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Guadalupe. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Guadalupe page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for Guadalupe.

The north-south-trending Guadalupe Island is seen is this 1991 Space Shuttle photograph. The shadow at the northern end of the island marks the scarp of a caldera cutting the northern of two shield volcanoes forming Guadalupe; the eastern rim of the caldera lies beneath the sea. The northern volcano is the younger of the two, and its caldera is partially filled by endogenous lava domes and viscous lava flows. The youngest activity produced a series of alkali basaltic cinder cones and lava flows.

Photo by National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA), 1991.
Steep sea cliffs forming headlands at the southern end of Guadalupe Island expose thick lava flows burying bedded pyroclastic rocks at the lower right. The southernmost of two major shield volcanoes forming the island is the oldest.

Photo by Al Segel, 1963 (courtesy of Rodey Batiza, University of Hawaii).
A buried valley filling lava flow sequence is exposed in the center of the photo in a cliff face on the west side of Guadalupe Island. Pyroclastic deposits from cinder cones formed along fissures cutting the southernmost of two large shield volcanoes forming the island are seen above the flows.

Photo by Al Segel, 1963 (courtesy of Rodey Batiza, University of Hawaii).
Ruggedly disssected Guadalupe Island consists of two large shield volcanoes, both of which have undergone caldera collapse. A younger volcanic series erupted from flank and fissure vents covers much of the island and fills their calderas. Pyroclastic cones were erupted primarily along fissures trending both NW-SE and NE-SW, although some lie along faults near the southern rim of the caldera of the younger northern volcano.

Photo by Rodey Batiza (University of Hawaii).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Batiza R, 1977. Petrology and chemistry of Guadalupe Island: an alkalic seamount on a fossil ridge crest. Geology, 5: 760-764.

Medina F, Suarez F, Espindola J M, 1989. Historic and Holocene volcanic centers in NW Mexico. Bull Volc Eruptions, 26: 91-93.

Volcano Types

Shield

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
0
0

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Guadalupe Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.