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Report on Galeras (Colombia) — May 1991


Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 5 (May 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.

Galeras (Colombia) More seismic events but lower energy release; thermal activity remains moderate

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Galeras (Colombia) (McClelland, L., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:5. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199105-351080



1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

The number of seismic events (high-frequency, low-frequency, and long-period) increased during May, while seismic energy release and reduced displacement decreased from April values (figures 40 and 41). The high-frequency activity (M 0.5-1.9) was centered W of the crater at 2-8 km depth. Tremor episodes were less frequent and had lower reduced displacements than in April. The tiltmeter 0.9 km E of the crater (Crater Station) continued to show deformation, with 20 µrad inflation (tangential component) in May, for a total inflation since September of 102 µrad. Other stations showed oscillations or only very low cumulative inflation.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Daily number of high-frequency events (bottom) and energy release (top) at Galeras, May 1991. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Daily number of long-period events (bottom) and reduced displacement (top) at Galeras, May 1991. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

SO2 flux, measured by COSPEC, varied between low and moderate levels. Fumarole temperatures in Besolima fissure continued to decrease (436°C in May compared to 468°C in April), while temperatures remained fairly constant at Deformes (254°C compared to 250-265°C since December 1990) and Calvache (89°C compared to 88-92°C since December 1989).

Geological Summary. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large open caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

Information Contacts: INGEOMINAS-OVP.