Report on Gamalama (Indonesia) — May 1993
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 5 (May 1993)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.
Gamalama (Indonesia) Ash eruption; pyroclastic flows
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on Gamalama (Indonesia) (Venzke, E., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:5. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199305-268060
0.81°N, 127.3322°E; summit elev. 1714 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
A radio broadcast from Indonesia reported an eruption at Gamalama on 21 May [see 18:7]. An earthquake swarm with 67 events preceded the eruption. The report described ash and incandescent ejecta as well as nuees ardentes that traveled W along the paths of lava flows from previous eruptions.
Geological Summary. Gamalama is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera, and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the extensive documentation of activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano; the S-flank Ngade maar formed after about 14,500–13,000 cal. BP (Faral et al., 2022). Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63.
Information Contacts: Jakarta Radio Network.