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Report on Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — 29 November-5 December 2006


Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
29 November-5 December 2006
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2006. Report on Rabaul (Papua New Guinea). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 November-5 December 2006. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

Weekly Report (29 November-5 December 2006)


Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

RVO reported that during 26-27 November Rabaul emitted weak gray ash clouds that drifted NW to W. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind. During 28 November-1 December, the emissions were forceful and plumes rose to 900 m (3,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 2 December, emissions of white vapor and gray ash clouds produced plumes to 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. that drifted ENE. During 3-6 December, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (3,900-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was again reported from areas downwind. Seismicity continued at low levels and deformation rates were low.

Geological Summary. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)