Report on Taal (Philippines) — 9 February-15 February 2022
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
9 February-15 February 2022
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2022. Report on Taal (Philippines). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 9 February-15 February 2022. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
14.002°N, 120.993°E; summit elev. 311 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
PHIVOLCS reported that unrest at Taal continued during 8-15 February, with persistent low-level background tremor, hot volcanic fluids circulating in the crater lake, and daily gas-and-steam plumes that rose as high as 3 km above the lake and drifted mainly SW and W. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued to be elevated, averaging 8,686-10,270 tonnes/day on 8, 10, and 12 February.
Each day during 10-15 February the seismic network recorded as many as 33 volcanic earthquakes, 1-10 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, and 2-24 episodes of volcanic tremor. One short-lived phreatomagmatic burst recorded at 1616 on 10 February produced a plume that rose 300 m from the lake and drifted SW. One hybrid event was recorded during 13-14 February. Tilt, continuous GPS, and InSAR data all indicated that Taal Volcano Island and the Taal region had begun deflating in October 2021. The Volcano Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reminded the public that the entire Taal Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and warned against extended stays on Taal Lake.
Geological Summary. Taal is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. Though not topographically prominent, its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the landscape of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 km2 surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all observed eruptions. The island is composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges have caused many fatalities.