Activity for the week of 6 June-12 June 2001
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| 16.507°S, 168.346°E
| Elevation 1413 m
According to the Wellington VAAC an eruption at Lopevi that began on 8 June at 1250 produced an ash cloud that rose at least 6 km a.s.l. and drifted to the WNW. The ash cloud was clearly visible on enhanced satellite imagery for many hours. According to news reports, more than 0.9 m of ash was deposited on the uninhabited island of Lopevi and several inches covered the neighboring island of Paama. As a result, on Paama the ~1,600 resident's water supply was contaminated (open water sources tested around 12 June showed a PH value of 3) and the crops were severely damaged by ash and gas from the eruptions. There were no reports of injuries, but the National Disaster Management Office project officer, Barton Bisiwei, stated that hundreds of people on Paama suffered from throat, chest, and lung problems as a result of breathing ash and gas. Smaller amounts of ash also fell on the islands of Ambrym, Malekula, and Epi. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) reported that the heavy ash fall in Paama had almost ceased by 12 June, but strong Southeasterly Trade Winds (10-15 knots) continued to spread the ash. A government spokesperson stated that as of 13 June no evacuations had been ordered.
Sources: Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Société Volcanologique Européenne, Associated Press, Reuters
Piton de la Fournaise
| Reunion Island (France)
| 21.244°S, 55.708°E
| Elevation 2632 m
Continuous extensometer and inclinometer variations have occurred since the beginning of April, and increased seismic activity has been recorded since the end of May. A short seismic crisis with 126 recorded events started at Piton de la Fournaise on 11 June 2001 at 1327. At 1350 extensometer variations indicated that a new eruption had started on the ESE flank, in the same area as the previous eruption on 27 March 2001. En echelon fissures started at about 2,500 elevation on the S flank, 200 m below the Dolomieu summit caldera. More fissures were located between 2,000 and 1,800 m elevation on the E flank at the southern base of crater Signal de l'Enclos and N of the Ducrot crater. Several lava flows descended the Grand Brûlé but their progression was very slow; at 1700 the front of the lava flow was still located at an elevation of 1,450 m. On the morning of 12 June, only the lower fissure at 1,800 m elevation was still active. It was ~200 m long, with several lava fountains 20-30 m high. The lava flow followed the northern border of the 27 March eruption and reached about 400 m elevation in the Grand Brûlé.
Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF), Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 55.972°N, 160.595°E
| Elevation 2882 m
The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 7 June at 0832 a possible eruption was detected on GMS-5 imagery. According to KVERT on 7 June gas-and-steam plumes rose 100 and 400m above the volcano. No seismicity was registered under the volcano. The Concern Color Code remained at Green.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3320 m
According the Italy's Volcanoes website, Etna's Southeast Crater was inactive on 6 June, but the following day volcanic activity commenced with lava flowing from the NNE side of the Southeast Crater cone and Strombolian bursts from the crater's summit vent. By 8 June volcanic activity decreased. A new eruptive episode began at Southeast Crater on 9 June that consisted of lava flows and Hawaiian-style lava fountaining from the NNE flank vent, and Strombolian bursts from the summit vent. Volcanic activity decreased until 11 June when Southeast Crater erupted again with more intense Strombolian activity at the summit vent than in the previous episode, and mild Strombolian activity at the NNE flank vent. A dark, tephra-laden cloud was observed rising from the summit vent, while lava fountains rose ~150 m above the NNE flank vent. The Toulouse VAAC reported that weak volcanic activity was visible on Etna WebCam imagery during 0445-0515. By 12 June no volcanic activity was observed at Southeast Crater.
Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière), Reuters
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
A small number of surface lava flows was visible along the W and E lava tube systems. Generally, weak tremor and related long-period earthquakes continued at a relatively steady rate beneath Kilauea's caldera. Tremor remained weak to moderate near Pu`u `O`o. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Luzon (Philippines)
| 13.257°N, 123.685°E
| Elevation 2462 m
Rockfalls, small avalanches, moderate steam emission, and fair-to-bright crater glow dominated the visible volcanic activity at Mayon during the week. Partial lava-dome collapses occurred on 11 June at 1347 and on 12 June at 1819. The 11 June collapse produced a small pyroclastic flow that descended the Bonga Gully, reaching an elevation of 1,480 m and producing a thin ash cloud that drifted to the E. The 12 June collapse sparked a period of vigorous, continuous emission of lava fragments for ~1 hour. During the week up to 198 rockfall events were detected per day. A maximum of 2,700 metric tons of SO2 was measured per day, which was lower than the previous week but above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone. PHIVOLC warned that residents around the volcano, especially those staying in areas facing the Bonga Gully and the SE sector, should be vigilant and prepared to evacuate at any time.
Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), The Philippine Star
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
Activity during 6-7 June remained at normal low levels, with minor gas-and-steam emissions, tremor, and a few small volcano-tectonic earthquakes at around 6 km depth below the crater. Increased emissions on 8 June sometimes included small amounts of ash. An explosion on 9 June at 0424 sent ash to an unknown height. Moderate activity continued through the next morning and decreased slightly. The Mexico City MWO reported an ash emission on 11 June at 1100 that rose 7.6 km a.s.l., but it was not seen on satellite imagery. The MWO warned of another ash emission on 12 June at 1648, but cloudy conditions prevented a height estimate. Typical low-to-moderate activity continued through 13 June, with the Yellow alert level unchanged.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
On 5 June a gas-and-steam plume rose 450-1,200 m above the volcano and extended 3-5 km W. A thermal anomaly observed in satellite images on 5 June at 1809 had two saturated pixels (49°C) in a background of 15-25°C. On 6 June at 0756 the anomaly consisted of one pixel at 49.3°C in a background of near 4°C. According to reports from the town of Klyuchi, on 7 June at 1630 an ash-and-gas plume rose 600 m above the dome and extended to the W. At 1650 a short-lived explosion sent an ash-and-gas plume 1,500 m above the volcano accompanied by 3- and 2-minute-long, shallow seismic events. A thermal anomaly was observed in satellite images on 7 June at 1745. Three pixels near saturation (at 44-45°C) stood out from a background of pixels 15-25°C, in addition to a steam-and-ash plume extending to the NW about 33 km. The level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), BBC News
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Earthquake activity decreased through the week of 1-8 June. Good views of the lava dome were hampered by clouds, but observations of rockfall activity confirmed that the main growth area was still concentrated in the southern sector of the dome. Sulfur dioxide fluxes were higher on 4 June than 1 June, with an average daily flux of 320 tons per day, compared to only 130 tons per day on 1 June. The daytime entry zone remained closed.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
A SIGMET from the Guayaquil MWO noted that the IG reported ash to 7 km a.s.l. moving W on 5 June at 1200. Considerable cloudiness over and around the summit made it difficult to detect any ash in satellite imagery. Similar reports were made on 6 June at 2324 and on 11 June at 1602, but no estimates of ash cloud heights were possible. Based on the seismic record, the 11 June explosion was a small event. A lahar was also observed on the morning of 11 June that moved down the Quebrada Achupashal.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
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