Activity for the week of 20 June-26 June 2001
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Papua New Guinea
| 4.08°S, 145.037°E
| Elevation 1807 m
According to information from pilot reports, Rabaul Volcanological Observatory (RVO), NOAA, and GMS imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 25 June Manam produced multiple lava flows and an ash cloud that rose to a maximum height of 4.5 km a.s.l. The ash cloud was not visible on satellite imagery. RVO noted that occasional low-level ash emissions had been observed since 20 June.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Luzon (Philippines)
| 13.257°N, 123.685°E
| Elevation 2462 m
A large, pyroclastic-flow producing eruption began at Mayon on 24 June at 1245. The first signs of heightened volcanic activity occurred on 19 June when tremor began that was associated with increased lava extrusion. SO2 emission increased to 6,000 metric tons on 19 June in comparison to an average of 1,700 metric tons per day the previous week. In addition, intense incandescence was observed at the dome and slight inflation was detected. By 23 June lava was rapidly flowing SE along the Bonga Gully towards the town of Mabinit, reaching 3.4 km from the volcano's summit. The same day at 1909 lava fountains rose at least 50 m above the summit crater rim. Due to the increase in activity PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level to 4 (hazardous eruption possible within days).
On 24 June a series of strong explosions produced ash clouds that rose up to 1 km above the volcano and drifted to the N. At 1245 a pyroclastic flow descended about 4 km SE down the Bonga and Buyuan gullies, generating an ash cloud that ascended to 2.3 km. Beginning at 1644 explosions sent ash clouds to ~5 km above the summit crater. The largest eruption produced an ash cloud that rose to 10 km above the volcano. Ash generated from the pyroclastic flows and from the summit eruptions drifted to the NE towards the town of Malilipot. PHIVOLCS increased the Alert Level to 5 (hazardous eruption in progress) and the danger zone was extended from 7 to 8 km in radius. PHIVOLCS also announced that all areas within the declared danger zone should be immediately evacuated. The areas at greatest risk were near the Mabinit, Bonga, Matanag, and Buyuan gullies. After the large eruptions on 24 June a lull in activity occurred until at least 0630 on 26 June. This interval was marked by a decrease in seismic activity and only three small explosions. PHIVOLCS maintained Alert Level 5 due to the possibility of more explosive volcanic activity.
News agencies reported that ~25,000 residents near the volcano were evacuated on 24 June. Many returned to their homes the following day despite the evacuation order. There were no reports of injuries directly from the eruptions. On 25 June area airports were closed. News articles noted the possibility that rain from a tropical storm in the area could mix with ash and generate dangerous lahars. The provincial government declared a state of calamity in affected areas.
Sources: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Associated Press, Reuters
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3320 m
During the week two eruptive episodes occurred at Etna's Southeast Crater. On 22 June an eruption began after 3 days of low activity. The eruption was similar to the previous episodes, with lava flowing down the flanks of the volcano prior to Strombolian activity. Volcanic bombs were thrown 300-400 m above the crater and lava fountains reached a maximum height of 150 m. An ash plume rose up to 3 km above the crater. The Toulouse VAAC reported that the ash plume was visible on Sistema Poseidon's Etna webcam for ~2 hours, but not on satellite imagery. The same day very strong degassing was observed at Bocca Nuova crater. On 24 June another eruptive episode lasted more than 2 hours.
Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
Weak glow was visible in the area where lava entered the sea at the E Kupapa`u entry. Small lava flows were active on the coastal flat at the base of the Pulama pali scarp. Generally, weak, steady tremor and related long-period earthquakes continued beneath Kilauea's caldera. Tremor remained weak to moderate near Pu`u `O`o and seismicity was at normal levels elsewhere. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone indicated no significant deformation.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Piton de la Fournaise
| Reunion Island (France)
| 21.244°S, 55.708°E
| Elevation 2632 m
Tremor associated with the eruption that began on 11 June at Piton de la Fournaise continued under the volcano's E flank. Lava fountains were visible at two vents; at one vent strong degassing occurred, while at the other vent a boiling lava lake occasionally overflowed, sending lava flows towards the NE.
Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF), Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
Volcanic activity at Popocatépetl remained at normal levels, with several small exhalations of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash. Based on information from CENAPRED, the Washington VAAC reported that on 24 June at 0900 a small eruption produced an ash cloud that rose ~0.5 km above the volcano and drifted to the SW.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 12.702°N, 87.004°W
| Elevation 1745 m
According to news reports, on 21 June an explosion at San Cristóbal sent an ash cloud to a maximum height of 800 m. The cloud extended approximately 25 km downwind of the crater and ash fell in the town of Chinandega, ~15 km SW of the volcano.
Sources: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), La Noticia, El Nuevo Diario, La Prensa (Nicaragua)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
During 15-21 June seismic activity was above background levels. Many small earthquakes occurred within the volcano's edifice and episodes of weak spasmodic volcanic tremor were recorded. Local seismic signals accompanied explosions, avalanches, and collapses. Weak steam, gas, and ash explosions rose to a maximum height of 800 m above the lava dome.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
During 15-22 June volcanic activity remained at about the same level as the previous week. The number of rockfalls increased in comparison to the previous week, while other types of seismic events generally decreased. Towards the end of the week the number of rockfalls also decreased slightly. Growth was still concentrated in the S sector of the lava dome above the town of Galway's. Small, near-continuous rockfalls occurred in the upper part of White River. Sulfur dioxide flux decreased slightly.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
Based on information from the IG, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 June at 0630 and 0652 eruptions sent ash clouds to 5.8 and 8.8 km a.s.l., respectively. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. Small explosions on 25 June at 0138 and 1328 produced ash clouds that rose ~6 km a.s.l and drifted to the W. Small amounts of ash were deposited in the town of Ambato, ~40 km NW of the volcano.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.