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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 19 September-25 September 2001.


















 Activity for the week of 19 September-25 September 2001

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Ioto Japan New

Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kerinci Indonesia Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Krakatau Indonesia Ongoing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Ioto  | Japan  | 24.751°N, 141.289°E  | Elevation 169 m

At 1015 on 21 September a submarine eruption began off of the SE coast of Iwo-jima, an island inhabited by U.S. and Japanese military personnel approximately 1,300 km S of Tokyo. The eruption was preceded by isolated and continuous tremor beginning on the evening of 20 September. Visible evidence of the eruption consisted of seawater gushing several meters above sea level near the island's coast and an area of discolored seawater extending 300-400 m in length. During 1000-1100 approximately 30 earthquakes occurred in the active area; the typical rate is one or two earthquakes per hour. The climax of the eruption occurred during 1200-1500. At about 1300 water gushed several ten's of meters above sea level and steam rose to 100-300 m above the sea. JMA personnel observed seawater rising intermittently during 1515-1715 at two points 50 m apart and 150-200 m from the island's SE coast. The temperatures at these points were 33-34 ºC and 50 ºC, while the surrounding water was at 27 ºC. By 1500 ten earthquakes were recorded per hour. During 1600-1700 three eruption sites were visible; at one a pyroclastic cone was slightly above the sea surface. JMA reported that by the next day volcanic and seismic activity returned to usual levels, with zero to four earthquakes occurring per hour and no tremor events.

Sources: Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Reuters



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

During 10-16 September fewer lava flows and lava avalanches traveled down the flanks of Karangetang than in the previous week. Lava flowed down the Kahetang and Keting rivers as far as 1.5 km, and one-km-long avalanches developed at the ends of these flows. Seismicity was dominated by small explosion and multiphase earthquakes. Emissions of steam and possibly ash at the northern main crater rose to 0.5 km. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kerinci  | Indonesia  | 1.697°S, 101.264°E  | Elevation 3800 m

The number of small explosion earthquakes at Kerinci increased to 2,281 during 10-16 September from 1,128 the previous week. Steam plumes rose to 600 m above the volcano, which remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4)

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

Lava continued to enter the ocean at the E Kupapa`u ocean entry. Lava flowed down the Pulama pali scarp W and E of the active flow field. The western flow was mainly `a`a. The more vigorous eastern flow had been active for more than two weeks. Surface lava flowed within about 0.6 km of the coastline about 1.8 km W of the E Kupapa`u ocean entry. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at moderate-to-low levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Background tremor at Pu`u `O`o was interrupted at intervals of ten's of minutes to an hour or two, by short-lived bursts of relatively vigorous tremor. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 155 m

The number of explosion earthquakes decreased significantly during 10-16 September in comparison to the previous week, while the number of small explosion earthquakes increased. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

According to VSI, during 10-16 September volcanic activity at Merapi decreased in comparison to the previous week. Incandescent lava avalanches continued to travel SW as far as 2.5 km to reach the upstream portions of the Lamat and Senowo rivers. Seismographs recorded 588 lava-avalanche events during the report period. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

During the week, volcanic activity at Popocatépetl consisted of small emissions of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash, and episodes of harmonic tremor. Analysis of aerial photographs taken on 20 September revealed that the lava dome had continued to grow since it was first observed on 10 August. The dome is growing inside the inner crater, which formed within the summit crater after a dome was destroyed in December 2000.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

During 14-21 September several steam-and-gas clouds were observed, as were ash clouds produced from explosions at Shiveluch, with the highest ash cloud rising 1.1 km above the lava dome. During the week hot avalanches from the summit of the dome were also noted. Seismic activity was above background levels and spasmodic volcanic tremor and weak, shallow seismic signals (possible collapses and avalanches) were registered. Thermal anomalies in the active dome area were visible on satellite imagery. Shiveluch remained at Color Concern Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

There was a moderate increase in volcanic activity at Soufrière Hills in comparison to the previous week. A marked increase in hybrid earthquake events was recorded and banded tremor events were slightly more intense. In addition, the number and strength of hybrid events associated with the banded tremor increased. The active lava dome continued to grow at a moderate rate, producing rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows that traveled E to the upper reaches of the Tar River Valley. The dome's volume was estimated to be 12 million cubic meters, therefore, the average growth rate has been ~2.6 cubic meters per second since the partial dome collapse on 29 July. Episodes of vigorous ash venting and increased rockfall activity occurred during periods of tremor. Low-level ash plumes from this activity were visible in satellite imagery.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During the week several moderate-sized explosions and low-level emissions of ash and gas occurred. An explosion on 20 September at 1044 produced an ash cloud that rose to 2 km above the volcano and drifted to the WSW. The explosion was accompanied by loud roaring and the sound of rockfalls. Small amounts of ash fell in Pillate, Juive, and Runtún. The explosion was preceded by tremor for approximately 3 hours. On 21 September at 1625 another moderate-sized explosion produced an ash cloud that rose to 3 km above the volcano's summit and drifted to the NW. During the night incandescence was visible at the volcano's crater.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fuego Lewotolo Salak
Ahyi Fujisan Little Sitkin San Cristobal
Aira Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Llaima San Miguel
Akan Galeras Loihi San Vicente
Alaid Galunggung Lokon-Empung Sangay
Alu-Dalafilla Gamalama Lopevi Sangeang Api
Ambae Gamkonora Machin Santa Ana
Ambang Gaua Makian Santa Maria
Ambrym Gorely Makushin Sarigan
Anatahan Great Sitkin Maly Semyachik Sarychev Peak
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Grimsvotn Manam Saunders
Antuco Guagua Pichincha Manda Hararo Semeru
Apoyeque Guallatiri Marapi Semisopochnoi
Arenal Guntur Maroa Seulawah Agam
Asamayama Hachijojima Martin Sheveluch
Askja Hakoneyama Masaya Shishaldin
Asosan Heard Maule, Laguna del Simbo
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Avachinsky Hierro Mayon Sinarka
Awu Hokkaido-Komagatake McDonald Islands Siple
Axial Seamount Home Reef Melimoyu Sirung
Azul, Cerro Hood Merapi Slamet
Azumayama Huaynaputina Midagahara Soputan
Bagana Hudson, Cerro Misti, El Sorikmarapi
Balbi Huila, Nevado del Miyakejima Sotara
Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Momotombo Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Ibu Monowai Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Montagu Island South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Mutnovsky St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Myojinsho Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Nabro Sulu Range
Brava Irazu Negra, Sierra Sumbing
Bristol Island Iya Negro, Cerro Sundoro
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Suretamatai
Calbuco Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kaba Nisyros Taal
Cameroon Kadovar Novarupta Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny NW Rota-1 Takawangha
Cayambe Kanaga Nyamuragira Talang
Cereme Kanlaon Nyiragongo Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okataina Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Okmok Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Ontakesan Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkuban Parahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Osorno Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pacaya Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Pagan Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Ketoi Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krakatau Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Raung Villarrica
Ekarma Kurikomayama Redoubt West Mata
Epi Kusatsu-Shiranesan Reventador Whakaari/White Island
Erebus Kverkfjoll Reykjanes Witori
Erta Ale Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Wolf
Etna Lamongan Rinjani Yasur
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Langila Ritter Island Zaozan [Zaosan]
Eyjafjallajokull Lanin Rotorua Zavodovski
Fernandina Lascar Ruang Zhupanovsky
Fogo Lateiki Ruapehu Zubair Group
Fonualei Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del
Fournaise, Piton de la Leroboleng Sabancaya
Fourpeaked Lewotobi Sakar
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

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URL https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm
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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)