Activity for the week of 10 October-16 October 2001
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 53.256°N, 158.836°E
| Elevation 2717 m
Intense gas-and-steam plumes rose above the volcano several times during 6-11 October, with the highest plume climbing 500 m. During the report period, weak fumarolic activity occurred and seismicity was at background levels. Satellite imagery on 2 October showed a broad band of warm ground that appeared to follow the rim of the crater, with a small area of warm ground in the center of the crater. The volcano remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
Lava continued to enter the ocean at the E Kupapa`u and Kamoamoa entries. Surface lava flows occurred along the course of the lava tube systems. Generally, volcanic tremor remained at low-to-moderate levels at Kilauea's summit and Pu`u `O`o. Background tremor at Pu`u `O`o was interrupted, at intervals of ten's of minutes to an hour or two, by short-lived bursts of relatively vigorous tremor. Tiltmeters across the volcano showed no significant deformation.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Piton de la Fournaise
| Reunion Island (France)
| 21.244°S, 55.708°E
| Elevation 2632 m
Relatively high seismic activity originally detected in early September continued through 16 October, with about 16 earthquakes detected per day for approximately 3 weeks. The summit tiltmeter showed that slight inflation occurred, and extensometer stations at the N and S bases confirmed inflation by slight but constant fissure openings. Extensometer variations were about 3 to 4 times smaller than observed for previous eruptions. The volcano was at Alert Level 1.
Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
During the week, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and minor amounts of ash, and underwent episodes of harmonic tremor.
Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)
| New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
| 4.271°S, 152.203°E
| Elevation 688 m
During 8-14 October summit activity at Tavurvur, a stratovolcano of the Rabaul Caldera, remained low and was dominated by weak-to-moderate emissions of white vapor. Low-frequency volcanic earthquakes continued to occur, but their number and size were relatively low. No significant ground deformation was detected.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
During 6-12 October a lava dome continued to grow in Shiveluch's active crater, and several eruptions produced ash and steam-and-gas clouds. The highest reported steam-and-gas cloud was produced from an eruption on 9 October at 1630 and rose 2 km above the dome. On 10 October at 2250 the reflection from incandescent lava was visible on the dome. Short pyroclastic flows and 400-m-high ash plumes were produced from small explosions on 11 October at 1515 and 1610. Thermal anomalies in the active dome area were visible on satellite imagery. Spasmodic volcanic tremor and weak, shallow seismic signals (possible collapses and avalanches) were registered. Shiveluch remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
During 5-12 October volcanic activity at Soufrière Hills remained at elevated levels, although there was a marked reduction in the number of hybrid earthquakes compared with the previous few weeks. Numerous pyroclastic flows were produced by material avalanching off of the lava dome, which continued to grow in the summit crater at a moderate rate. The flows were relatively small, but energetic, and were confined to the upper and middle reaches of the Tar River Valley to the E of the volcano. Associated ash clouds drifted to the W and NW, occasionally depositing small amounts of ash on inhabited areas on the N part of the island. According to the Washington VAAC, ash clouds did not rise over ~2 km a.s.l. Avalanching talus on the S flank of the previous lava dome produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled SW down the White River approximately two-thirds of the distance to the sea. Mudflows occurred in the Belham Valley during several days with periods of torrential rainfall. The daytime entry zone was reopened on 11 October, following its temporary closure the previous week.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
The IG reported to the Washington VAAC that ash was visible ~800 m above the volcano on 14 October at 1736. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
| 5.05°S, 151.33°E
| Elevation 2334 m
Volcanic tremor, which had been occurring at moderate-to-high levels during the previous 2 weeks, dropped dramatically on 11 October. After 11 October seismicity only consisted of discrete low-frequency earthquakes. On 8 and 9 October loud roaring noises emanated from the volcano. A deflationary trend continued to be detected.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.