Activity for the week of 3 April-9 April 2002
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
As of 6 April volcanism continued at Colima and more small explosion earthquakes were recorded than during the previous week. Incandescent lava avalanches, generated from the fronts of block-lava flows, continued to travel 2-3 km down Colima's S, SW, and W flanks, and sporadically down the E flank. In addition, block-lava flows extended 550 m down the SW flank and 2 km down the W flank.
Source: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3295 m
Ash emissions during 29 March-6 April at Etna's Bocca Nuova crater deposited ash as far as the town of Catania ~25 km SSE of the volcano. Ash emissions apparently stopped at Northeast Crater by 2 April; only steam was visible rising above the crater. During 4 and 5 April, earthquakes occurred at or near Etna with magnitudes up to 4.2.
Sources: Italy's Volcanoes, Etna Volcan Sicilien (Charles Rivière)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
During 29 March-2 April, seismicity was above background levels at Karymsky. No seismic data have been available since 3 April due to seismic station malfunction. Faint thermal anomalies were visible on AVHRR satellite imagery on 30 and 31 March. No ash was visible on any satellite imagery. The last assigned Concern Color Code (until 2 April) was Yellow ("volcano is restless").
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 4-6 April, a remarkable series of deflation and inflation events occurred at Kilauea. Beginning on 4 April around 2100, Kilauea's summit deflated and 30 minutes later Pu`u `O`o followed. The summit deflated ~1.7 microradians and Pu`u` O`o dropped ~9 microradians. On 5 April rapid inflation began at 1600 at the summit and 12-13 minutes later at Pu`u` O`o. Inflation ended at the summit at 1700, when the summit abruptly deflated, and at Pu`u` O`o at 1800. Then, tilt at Pu`u` O`o oscillated three times between rapid deflation and slower inflation. After the tilt temporarily settled down, on 6 April at 0508 another oscillatory period commenced. Following 4.5 oscillations, tilt resumed slow, bumpy inflation after 1200 that same day.
During the period of deflation and inflation, long-period earthquakes increased at the summit, while tremor remained steady at Pu`u` O`o until it slightly increased on 6 April. Small surface lava flows were seen on the lower portion of Pulama pali and the upper part of the lava fan. During a brief trip to Pu`u` O`o on the morning of the 6th, scientists saw that the crater lake had risen ~8 m since 29 March (the lake surface was 17 m below the E rim), several cones were active, and lava was flowing into the lava lake from two vents. By the 7th activity had calmed down; tilt was relatively steady, volcanic tremor at Pu`u` O`o was at moderate levels, and tremor at the summit was at low-to-moderate levels. On the 8th there was activity at the rootless shields. Incandescence was not visible at Pu`u` O`o, which possibly means that lava lake activity was waning or had ended.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
During 3-9 April, Popocatépetl emitted small clouds of steam, gas, and generally minor amounts of ash. In addition, episodes of harmonic tremor were recorded. A moderate explosion on 8 April at 0438 produced an ash cloud to a height of ~7.6 km a.s.l. Incandescence was visible at the volcano during the eruption. A small ash cloud was visible on satellite imagery drifting to the E and by 1145 the cloud had drifted over the coast of México near the city of Veracruz.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
During 29 March-5 April, several gas-and-steam and ash-and-gas emissions occurred at Shiveluch. In addition, seismicity decreased in comparison to previous weeks, but remained above background levels. The highest rising ash-and-gas plume observed was produced from a short-lived explosive eruption on 30 March at 2042. Seismicity during the report period included earthquakes with magnitudes less than or equal to 2.1 at depths of 0-10 km, many local shallow seismic signals (from possible avalanches or weak gas-and-ash explosions), and episodes of weak intermittent volcanic tremor. Thermal anomalies were visible on satellite imagery, but ash was not. Shiveluch remained at Concern Color Code Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
During 29 March-5 April, volcanism slightly decreased at Soufrière Hills in comparison to the previous week. Lava-dome growth over the entire summit region produced rockfalls that traveled predominately to the SE, E, and NE. Several pyroclastic flows traveled E ~2 km down the Tar River Valley, reaching the sea. At the beginning of the report week, ash from ongoing rockfalls and venting of the dome fell to the NW and N of Montserrat.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
During 3-9 April, emissions of gas, steam, and ash continued at Tungurahua. A new period of tremor began at the volcano on 2 April. On 7 April gas-and-ash clouds were visible rising 1-2 km above the volcano and drifting mainly to the N. The same day around noon a lahar traveled N, blocking the Ambato-Baños route.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), El Comercio
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:
Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.
Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.
For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement
RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.