Activity for the week of 6 November-12 November 2002
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3320 m
An eruption began at Etna on 27 October. According to a report from INGV-CT, the lava supply from Etna's main vents ended by 3 November. At that time lava flows were no longer emitted from the volcano's S and N flanks. As of the 11th, fire fountaining continued from the S vent at 2,750 m elevation, near Torre del Filosofo. All data (gas emission, volcanic tremor, composition of the ash) suggest a steady state at this vent. Ash fallout caused intermittent disruption at the Catania airport and damage to buildings. The Toulouse VAAC reported that moderate-to-severe ash emissions had occurred since the eruption began. During 6-12 November ash clouds rose to a maximum height of ~6.1 km a.s.l.
Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Aeolian Islands (Italy)
| 38.638°N, 15.064°E
| Elevation 399 m
On 4 November, bubbling, a strong sulfur smell, and micro-telluric tremor were observed in the sea near Panarea Island in the Aeolian Archipelago. The submarine hydrothermal activity killed hundreds of fish. According to Stromboli On-Line, the temperature of the water in the area was not very high (~25°C). They stated that an intensification of degassing and consequent bubbling occurred in the area surrounding the small islet of Lisca Bianca, about 2 km E of Panarea.
Sources: Stromboli On-Line, Associated Press
| Western Java (Indonesia)
| 7.32°S, 107.73°E
| Elevation 2665 m
News agencies reported that an eruption began at Papandayan on 11 November. According to a police officer on duty in a nearby town, ash and lava emitted from one of the volcano's craters began flowing into the nearby Cibeureum River at 1600. Evacuations from towns near the volcano involved 1,000-2,000 residents. The Darwin VAAC reported that a small, low-level plume may have been visible on satellite imagery.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Associated Press, Agence France-Presse (AFP)
| 0.077°S, 77.656°W
| Elevation 3562 m
Volcanic activity decreased following the large eruption at Reventador on 3 November, but small-to-moderate eruptions continued during 5-12 November. IG reported that on the 5th, explosions produced SW-drifting ash-and-gas clouds to heights between 3 and 6 km. Ash fell in the town of Chaco. On the 7th an eruption sent an ash-and-gas cloud to 7 km that drifted W. Rain during the evening of the 9th caused mudflows to travel down the volcano's flanks, closing the Chaco-Reventador highway. According to the Washington VAAC, the maximum height reached by ash clouds during the report period was ~10 km a.s.l. On 10 November the Quito airport was reopened, after being closed for a week. Ash from previous eruptions descended on Quito on 11 November, causing officials to close schools and warn residents to protect themselves from inhaling ash.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Associated Press, Reuters, Reuters
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT raised the Concern Color Code at Shiveluch from Yellow to Orange on 11 November. Visual observations revealed that on the 4th at 1020, the 5th at 0830, and the 6th at 1318, short-lived explosions sent ash-and-gas plumes to heights of approximately 3.5, 1.5, and 2 km above the dome, respectively. During 8-11 November, seismicity remained above background levels. Thermal anomalies and a faint ~11-km-long plume (on the 8th) were visible on satellite imagery, but ash was not. Seismic data on the 11th indicated possible hot avalanches and several ash-and-gas explosions sending clouds up to 5.5 km above the dome.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 6-11 November at Kilauea, lava continued to flow into the sea at moderate rates from two lava deltas, as it has for several weeks. Spots of incandescence were visible on Paliuli, on the gentle slope below Pulama pali, and above Pulama pali. Surface lava flows were visible on the coastal flat at times. Generally, seismicity was at normal levels. The swarm of long-period earthquakes and tremor beneath Kilauea's caldera, occasionally active since June, was rather weak. Short bursts of tremor were interspersed with small earthquakes. Small deflation may have occurred at the Uwekahuna and Pu`u `O`o tiltmeters on the 10th, otherwise no significant deformation was recorded.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
A moderate eruption occurred at Popocatépetl on 6 November at 0735. According to aircraft reports, the eruption produced a small amount of ash that reached 4 km above the crater and drifted slightly to the N. An intense 3-minute-long phase was followed by high-frequency tremor. Minor ashfall occurred in towns including San Juan Tehuixtitlán, San Pedro Nexapa, Amecameca, Ecatzingo,Tepejomulco, Ozumba, and San Vicente Chimalhuacán. Four small eruptions also occurred during the day. The Alert Level remained at Yellow Phase II, with a restricted area of 12 km from the crater.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Associated Press
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Volcanic activity at Soufrière Hills during 1-8 November was at similar levels to the past few weeks. Lava-dome growth on the N part of the dome continued through the report period, although it was less directed, with rockfalls dispersed over the summit and flanks. The lobe shed rockfall debris predominately down Tuitt's Ghaut and Tar River Valley, although also onto the NW flank and into the top of Gage's Valley. SO2 emission rates were generally low throughout the week, with a peak on 4 November. According to the Washington VAAC, on the 8th strong pyroclastic flows produced ash-and-gas clouds to a height of ~1.5 km.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Aeolian Islands (Italy)
| 38.789°N, 15.213°E
| Elevation 924 m
During the end of October, there was an increase in the intensity of Strombolian activity at Stromboli. More powerful eruptions and a larger number of ash-dominated eruptions occurred than is usual.
Source: Stromboli On-Line
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
During 6-12 November, emissions of steam, gas, and ash continued at Tungurahua. Plumes rose to a maximum height of ~7 km a.s.l.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.