Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 17 August-23 August 2011.


















 Activity for the week of 17 August-23 August 2011

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) New
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) New
Manam Papua New Guinea New
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Chile Ongoing
San Cristobal Nicaragua Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 August an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 93 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that during 17-23 August cloud cover over Cleveland prevented observations of the summit crater. On 21 August AVO noted that a weak, 1-pixel thermal anomaly was observed in a recent satellite view during a cloud break. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. No current seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that eight days after the preceding episode, Etna's New SE Crater was the site of another paroxysmal eruptive episode on the morning of 20 August, the eleventh event of this type since the beginning of 2011. The event began on 18 August with increased gas emissions from New SE Crater. On 19 August a powerful explosion ejected incandescent bombs and produced a small ash plume. The event was followed by a few more minor explosions, all accompanied by an increase in volcanic tremor amplitude and focal shift from the NE Crater toward the New SE Crater. Throughout the day small dilute ash was emitted. During the evening weak Strombolian activity commenced, with small explosions occurring about every 30 minutes.

On 20 August weak but continuous incandescence due to lava emissions appeared in the crater. Strombolian activity intensified, and lava overflowed the rim through a breach in the E crater rim traveling towards the Valle del Bove. Almost five hours later lava fountaining generated heavy fallout of large pyroclastics onto the flanks of the cone. Dense plumes of gas and tephra rose 5-6 km from the crater and drifted SW, causing ash- and lapilli-fall in areas such as Paternò (22 km SSW), Ragalna (13 km SSW), and Biancavilla (16 km SW). Closer to the crater, in the Torre del Filosofo area to the S, clasts up to several tens of centimeters in diameter landed on the ground.

Light brown dust clouds appeared in an area on the lower E flank of the cone, where a small depression had formed a few hours after the 12 August event. Shortly thereafter, the continuous, intense ejection of pyroclastics onto the flanks of the cone generated avalanches resembling pyroclastic flows, which descended a few hundred meters beyond the base of the cone, mainly towards the S. In the meantime, the lower portion of the E flank of the cone began to slide and collapse under the push of lava from within the channel. A new lava flow issued from the collapsed area, taking a more southerly path than the lava emitted until then, and divided into numerous branches. Lava fountaining slowed later in the evening and eventually ceased, followed by ash emissions from the crater for a few minutes. A series of ash explosions lasted for five minutes in the early morning on 21 August. The morphological changes affecting the pyroclastic cone surrounding the New SE Crater were significant. Besides the collapse on the lower E flank of the cone, the S and NE rims of the cone had grown in height.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 17-23 August, HVO reported that lava continued to trickle onto the collapsed floor of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o' crater and some spattering occurred from various areas on the floor. The only activity on the W flank was observed during 17-20 August; a small lava flow from the base of the N pond rim near the Kamoamoa fissures and a larger flow from the N flow branch were both active. During 20-21 August a small amount of lava emitted from a vent on the S crater floor flowed a short distance. Later, lava started issued in larger quantities from another source on the S part of the floor that quickly filled in a low trench. Lava continued to flow onto the crater floor during the next two days.

During 17-18 August lava flowed onto the floor of the vent inset within the E wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. By the next day a persistent spattering source at the W edge of the cavity pushed the lava surface sluggishly from W to E. During 19-21 August drain-and-fill cycles were observed; the highest level of the lava surface was below the inner ledge 75 m below Halema'uma'u Crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that the summit area of Manam was obscured by atmospheric clouds on most days during 1-19 August. When the summit was clear to viewers on the mainland, 15-20 km away from Manam, both vents were emitting white vapor plumes. Main Crater produced light-gray ash clouds during 13 and 17-18 August, and bright, steady incandescence was visible on most clear nights. Weak incandescence was visible from Southern Crater on some nights. People living on the island reported occasional noises from both craters on 3 and 11 August. Seismicity during the reporting period was dominated by volcanic tremors. Discrete high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes were also recorded. RVO noted that high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes are not very common for Manam. An electronic tiltmeter located about 4 km SW from the summit craters continued to show inflation towards the summit area.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-21 August ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-90 km NW and W.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that white vapor plumes rose from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone during 15-19 August. No volcano-related seismicity was recorded. The rate of uplift from GPS measurements on Matupit Island had increased from the end of July.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 17-22 August explosions from Sakura-jima often produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. On 18 August, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-21 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-150 km NE and N.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 12-19 August moderate seismic activity continued at Karymsky, indicating that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.2 km (13,800 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly on the volcano was detected by satellite during 14 and 17-18 August; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 12-19 August seismicity from Kizimen was above background levels and weak volcanic tremor continued to be detected. Video images showed an occasional steam plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (9,800 ft) a.s.l. and fumarolic activity on 14 August. A lava flow on the E flank was active. Satellite images showed a large bright thermal anomaly on the volcano all week and a gas-and-steam plume that drifted 57 km NNE on 15 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption on 20 August produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Subsequent images that day showed that continuing ash emissions had later dissipated.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Puyehue-Cordon Caulle  | Chile  | 40.59°S, 72.117°W  | Elevation 2236 m

During 16-23 August, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismic activity indicated the eruption from the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, continued at a low level. Cloudy weather mostly prevented satellite and camera observations of the eruption during 16-17 August, however a mostly white plume was observed by an area camera rising 2 km above the crater on 16 August. A plume that was sometimes gray rose 2.5 km above the crater on 18 August. A plume observed in satellite imagery that same day drifted 200 km NW. A period of harmonic tremor that lasted about 25 minutes may have indicated lava emission. Incandescence was observed at night during 18-19 August.

On 19 August a camera recorded a mostly white plume that rose 2 km above the crater. Satellite imagery showed a plume drifting 270 km NW. During an overflight, conducted by ONEMI in collaboration with the Air Force, scientists observed a white plume rising 1.4 km that was dark gray for the first few meters above the vent. Solidified lava filled up a depression around Cordón Caulle; no active lava flows were noted. On 20 August a plume that was mostly white rose 2.5 km above the crater. Two explosive events caused the plume to rise 4 km and contain a higher concentration of ash. Satellite imagery showed a plume drifting 200 km WNW on 20 August, and 500 km SE and NW on 21 August. A white plume that rose 2 km above the crater was observed on 22 August. Satellite imagery showed a very diffuse plume drifting E. The Alert Level remained at Red.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  San Cristobal  | Nicaragua  | 12.702°N, 87.004°W  | Elevation 1745 m

The Washington VAAC reported that on 21 August emissions of gas and light ash from San Cristóbal were possibly detected in satellite imagery drifting 35 km WNW. Ash was not detected in subsequent images.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was moderate during 12-19 August, and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.8 km (22,300 ft) a.s.l. on 13 August and to an altitude of 7.8 km (25,600 ft) a.s.l. on 15 August. Ash plumes may have risen to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on the other days. Gas-and-steam plumes containing ash observed in satellite imagery drifted 30 km SW on 12 August. Ground-based observers noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. on 16 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

Search by Volcano
Agung Fuego Llaima San Cristobal
Ahyi Fujisan Loihi San Miguel
Aira Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Lokon-Empung San Vicente
Akan Galeras Lopevi Sangay
Alaid Galunggung Machin Sangeang Api
Alu-Dalafilla Gamalama Makian Santa Ana
Ambae Gamkonora Makushin Santa Maria
Ambang Gaua Maly Semyachik Sarigan
Ambrym Gorely Manam Sarychev Peak
Anatahan Great Sitkin Manda Hararo Saunders
Antuco Grimsvotn Marapi Semeru
Apoyeque Guagua Pichincha Maroa Semisopochnoi
Arenal Guallatiri Martin Seulawah Agam
Asamayama Guntur Masaya Sheveluch
Askja Hachijojima Mauna Loa Shishaldin
Asosan Hakoneyama Mayon Simbo
Augustine Heard McDonald Islands Sinabung
Avachinsky Hekla Melimoyu Sinarka
Awu Hierro Merapi Siple
Axial Seamount Hokkaido-Komagatake Metis Shoal Sirung
Azul, Cerro Home Reef Midagahara Slamet
Azumayama Hood Misti, El Soputan
Bagana Hudson, Cerro Miyakejima Sorikmarapi
Balbi Huila, Nevado del Momotombo Sotara
Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fonualei Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
Search by Date
Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.





 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement


RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)