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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 28 March-3 April 2012.


















 Activity for the week of 28 March-3 April 2012

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Fuego Guatemala New
Iliamna United States New
Lewotobi Flores Island (Indonesia) New
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia New
Soufriere Hills Montserrat New
Sundoro Central Java (Indonesia) New

Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Chile Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that on 28 March the Volcano Alert Level for Cleveland was raised to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange due to the formation of a new lava dome, observed in satellite imagery, which extruded in the summit crater during the previous week. During 29 March-3 April cloud cover prevented observations of the crater. Elevated surface temperatures consistent with a hot lava dome were detected in infrared satellite imagery on 4 April. No seismic information was available because Cleveland does not have a real-time seismic network.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 31 March-1 April and 3-4 April explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m above the crater and drifted 10 km W and NW. During the night lava fountains rose 100-150 m above the crater and formed avalanches that traveled towards the Río Cenizas drainage. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 1 April an ash plume drifted 13 km WSW and a well-defined thermal anomaly was observed.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Iliamna  | United States  | 60.032°N, 153.09°W  | Elevation 3053 m

AVO reported that during 28 March-3 April seismicity at Iliamna remained above background levels, although just slightly, during 25-27 March. When not obscured by clouds, satellite and web camera views showed nothing unusual. The Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Lewotobi  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.542°S, 122.775°E  | Elevation 1703 m

CVGHM reported that seismicity at Lewotobi Lakilaki, one of two stratovolcanoes comprising Lewotobi, fluctuated but declined overall during 18 September 2011-25 March 2012. No significant changes were observed at the volcano. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 29 March.

Observers of Lewotobi Perempuan, the second stratovolcano comprising Lewotobi, noted that during January-March diffuse white plumes rose 15 m above the crater and no significant changes had occurred. After 31 August 2011 through 25 March 2012 seismicity fluctuated but declined overall. On 29 March the Alert Level was lowered to 1.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

According to INGEOMINAS, the Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 24-31 March seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz increased significantly. Earthquakes indicating rock fracturing occurred W of Arenas crater, exhibiting a pattern observed prior to the eruptions in 1985 and 1989, although less energetic. Starting at 1054 on 29 March, and lasting for about 25 minutes, more than 135 earthquakes were detected S of Arenas crater at a depth of 4 km. At 0400 on 31 March earthquake signals indicating rock fracturing and fluid movement markedly increased. The Alert Level was raised to II (Orange; "eruption likely within days or weeks"). Seismicity remained elevated during 1-3 April; earthquakes were located below Arenas crater at depths between 0.5 and 3 km.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 24-30 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was generally at a low level and no ash-venting episodes had been detected since 23 March. The average sulfur dioxide emission rate measured during the week was 1,320 tonnes per day with a minimum of 264 and a maximum of 4,594, which was the third-highest value recorded in the last ten years. High values occurred between 24 and 26 March, averaging 2,550 tonnes per day over the three days. The average for the rest of the week was around 400 tonnes per day. The Hazard Level remained at 2.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Sundoro  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.3°S, 109.992°E  | Elevation 3136 m

CVGHM reported that seismicity at Sundoro continued to increase into January after the Alert Level was raised from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 December 2011. After the first week of January through 27 March the number of daily earthquakes significantly decreased. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 on 30 March.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the twenty-third paroxysmal eruptive episode since January 2011 took place at New SE Crater (New SEC) of Etna during the morning of 1 April following two weeks of quiescence. The episode was characterized by tall lava fountains from vents within the crater and on the SE flank of its cone, a gas-and-tephra plume, and lava flows descending toward the Valle del Bove. The paroxysmal phase lasted about 1.5 hours and ended just before daybreak. Ash and lapilli fell over the SE sector of the volcano, affecting mainly the area between Monterosso and Zafferana Etnea, but also the area between Acireale and Giarre, further downslope.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 23-30 March seismic activity from Karymsky continued to be detected, and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. during 22-26 March. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly on the volcano almost daily. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash nearby. Incandescence was visible from both a small pit on the NE edge and a small spatter cone on the SE edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and on the upper part of the lava-tube system on the E flank. Lava flows continued to advance down the pali and across the coastal plain, reaching about 1.6 km from the coast. On 2 April a small lava flow issued from a vent on the S edge of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 27 March-3 April steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl. Emissions contained small amounts of ash on 28 and 30 March and crater incandescence was observed at night during 31 March-3 April.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Puyehue-Cordon Caulle  | Chile  | 40.59°S, 72.117°W  | Elevation 2236 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 27 March-3 April satellite and web camera observations of the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, showed plumes that rose no higher than 1.2 km above the crater. Incandescence from the crater was observed every night. The Alert Level remained at Orange.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that explosive activity at Shiveluch continued during 23-30 March. Ground-based observers and satellite imagery indicated that a viscous lava flow continued to effuse in the crater formed during a 2010 eruption. During 25-26 and 28 March ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a weak thermal anomaly daily on the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 192 km E and SE during 25-28 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

CVGHM reported that during 1 January-29 March white plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 50 m above the crater and seismicity declined. On 30 March the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that during 28 March-3 April visual observations of Tungurahua were mostly limited due to cloud cover. A plume rose 800 m above the crater on 1 April and ashfall was reported in Pillate (7 km W), Choglontus (13 km WSW), and Motilones (W). Lahars descended the Pingullo and Achupashal (NW) drainages, carrying material 30 cm in diameter and causing a temporary road closure.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fuego Little Sitkin San Cristobal
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Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkuban Parahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
Egon Kurikomayama Raung Villarrica
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt West Mata
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador White Island
Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Wolf
Etna Langila Ritter Island Yasur
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Rotorua Zaozan
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zavodovski
Fernandina Lateiki Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fogo Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fonualei Leroboleng Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotobi Sakar
Fourpeaked Lewotolo Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)