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Report on Azufral (Colombia) — August 1990


Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 15, no. 8 (August 1990)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.

Azufral (Colombia) Fumaroles near young summit domes; extra-caldera ignimbrites may be only hundreds of years old

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1990. Report on Azufral (Colombia) (McClelland, L., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 15:8. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199008-351090



1.08°N, 77.68°W; summit elev. 4070 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

"Azufral caldera, with associated dome complex, was visited during July and August 1990. The major goal of current research, by the Univ de Montréal, is to map the stratigraphy of the caldera-filling dome sequence and the very young ignimbrites, distributed primarily S and E of the complex. Within the summit caldera, a lake (Laguna Verde) had a temperature of 8°C and pH of 2.4. The lake was a distinct clear emerald green, notably not the opaque milky green of an extremely acid lake such as at Poás, Costa Rica. The hottest springs found on the NE edge of the lake had a temperature of 54°C and pH of 2.6. More acid vents must be located beneath the lake to produce its low pH. Giggenbach-type samples were collected from the lake-edge bubbles. The highest fumarole temperatures, encountered on the youngest rhyodacite dome, were 87°C. Extensive alteration was evident, usually near the base of the domes. Bedded tuffs and tuff breccias, on the NE side of the lake, appeared to be related to hydrothermal explosions. The relative stratigraphy of the domes was indicated by their youthful morphology, with those on the E side appearing to be the youngest. A series of wave-cut terraces around the lake extended to 4-5 m above the present lake level. Between early July and August, lake level dropped by ~ 5 cm, probably in response to the dry season that normally begins in July. Outside the caldera the rhyodacite ignimbrites appeared, from stratigraphy and erosion, to be young - perhaps less than several hundred years. Fumarolic activity at Azufral does not appear to be significantly influenced by volcanic processes."

Geological Summary. Azufral stratovolcano in southern Colombia, also known as Azufral de Túquerres, is truncated by a 2.5 x 3 km caldera containing a Holocene rhyodacitic lava-dome complex. A crescent-shaped lake, Laguna Verde, occupies the NW side of the caldera. Nearly a dozen lava domes are present, the latest of which were formed about 3600 years ago and have active fumaroles. Azufral rocks are more silicic than those of nearby Colombian volcanoes; an apron of rhyodacitic pyroclastic-flow deposits rings the volcano. The last known eruption took place about 1000 years ago.

Information Contacts: S. Williams, Louisiana State Univ; J. Stix and E. Fontaine, Univ de Montréal.