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Report on Aira (Japan) — November 1990


Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 15, no. 11 (November 1990)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.

Aira (Japan) Windows broken by tephra from strong explosions

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1990. Report on Aira (Japan) (McClelland, L., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 15:11. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199011-282080



31.5772°N, 130.6589°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

Explosions . . . on 30 November at 0830 and 1504 . . . occurred after 57 days of quiescence. The ash plume from the morning explosion was the highest of the month, rising more than 4,000 m. Strong winds carried substantial quantities of ejecta southward. Lapilli/block fall 3 km S of the crater (at Arimura) broke four house windowpanes and 13 car windshields. Weather clouds obscured the plume from the afternoon explosion, but tephra was again blown southward by strong winds, breaking five more house windowpanes and seven car windshields at Arimura, and two car windshields at Tarumizu City, 8 km SE of the crater. The year's previous damage from Sakura-jima's explosions was on 1 May (windows broken by an air shock) and 28 August (two car windshields broken by lapilli). At total of 107 grams/m2 of ash were deposited [at the KLMO], down slightly from . . . October.

Geological Summary. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim and built an island that was joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent eruptions since the 8th century have deposited ash on the city of Kagoshima, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest recorded eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: JMA.