Report on Turrialba (Costa Rica) — January 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 1 (January 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Turrialba (Costa Rica) Continued fumarolic activity; rockfalls
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Turrialba (Costa Rica) (McClelland, L., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:1. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199101-345070.
10.025°N, 83.767°W; summit elev. 3340 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Continued fumarolic activity in the central and SW craters was noted during fieldwork on 3 January. Fumarole temperatures ranged from 84° to 89°C. Minor morphologic changes had occurred, caused by rockslides down the inner walls of the SW crater, possibly related to an [M 5.7] earthquake near Puriscal (roughly [60 km] WSW of Turrialba) on 22 December.
Geologic Background. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive edifice covers an area of 500 km2. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.
Information Contacts: G. Soto and R. Barquero, ICE; Mario Fernández and Wilfredo Rojas, Escuela Centroamericana de Geología, Univ de Costa Rica.