Report on Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — February 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 2 (February 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) Small ash emissions with tremor
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) (McClelland, L., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:2. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199102-351020.
Nevado del Ruiz
4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Sporadic, small ash emissions continued, while seismicity remained at low levels during February. No significant variations in energy release or number of events were recorded. High-frequency earthquakes occurred in three zones; at the crater, and to its S and E (earthquakes had not recently occurred in the latter zone). Low-level tremor pulses were often associated with the ash emissions. No significant changes in deformation were observed. The monthly average SO2 flux, measured by COSPEC, was 753 t/d.
Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.
Information Contacts: C. Carvajal, INGEOMINAS, Manizales.