Report on Lokon-Empung (Indonesia) — May 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 5 (May 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Lokon-Empung (Indonesia) Increased gas emission, then ash eruption
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Lokon-Empung (Indonesia) (McClelland, L., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:5. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199105-266100
1.358°N, 124.792°E; summit elev. 1580 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Gas emissions to 450 m height were observed during the morning and afternoon of 10 May. One week later (17-18 May), ash was erupted to 200-400 m height. Seismicity then decreased, with one deep and three shallow volcanic earthquakes recorded during the last week of May, down from six deep and nine shallow events the second week of the month.
Geological Summary. The Lokong-Empung volcanic complex, rising above the plain of Tondano in North Sulawesi, includes four peaks and an active crater. Lokon, the highest peak, has a flat craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung cone 2 km NE has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century. A ridge extending 3 km WNW from Lokon includes the Tatawiran and Tetempangan peaks. All eruptions since 1829 have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m crater in the saddle between Lokon and Empung. These eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that sometimes damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred.
Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.