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Report on Merapi (Indonesia) — January 1993


Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 1 (January 1993)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.

Merapi (Indonesia) Pyroclastic flows from growing summit lava dome; highest plume rises 1500 m

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on Merapi (Indonesia) (McClelland, L., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:1. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199301-263250



7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

Incandescent pyroclastic flows generated by the growing 1992 lava dome continued to advance down the Bebang river in late 1992 and early 1993. Some of the larger rockfalls overflowed into the Bedog and Boyong rivers on the S flank. Pyroclastic flows were visually observed between the end of December and 6 February 1993. On 3 February, the longest pyroclastic flow of this period traveled 4 km WNW down the Senowo and Sat rivers, and the highest plume, rising 1,500 m, occurred at 2200-2206. Rainfall recorded between 1515 and 2310 that same day at five volcano observatories around Merapi totalled 58-94 mm. There has been no increase in seismicity of volcanic gas concentrations (table 6). Blue sublimates are no longer seen around the G.13 solfatara field.

Geological Summary. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2,000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequent growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities.

Information Contacts: S. Bronto, MVO.