Report on San Cristobal (Nicaragua) — March 1993
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 3 (March 1993)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.
San Cristobal (Nicaragua) Gas plume; little evidence of acid rain
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on San Cristobal (Nicaragua) (Venzke, E., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:3. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199303-344020.
12.702°N, 87.004°W; summit elev. 1745 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
"San Cristóbal was producing a gas plume in January 1993 at levels comparable to recent years. On 6 and 7 January a plume extended over Chinandega (~15 km SW) at about 1,000 m above sea level. No gas was smelled at farms at the base of the volcano. There was patchy evidence of acid rain on the leaves of a few coffee bushes and other plant species, but effects were mild and the coffee crops were not reported to be affected. Analyses of rainwater collected for drinking purposes at one farm revealed cation and anion concentrations expected of normal rainwater, as did a sample from the spring of a neighboring farm. The analyses were undertaken by the British Geological Survey."
Geologic Background. The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km W of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.
Information Contacts: Andrea Borgia, Instituto Nazionale di Geofisica, via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Roma, Italy; B. van Wyk de Vries, Open Univ; Peter J. Baxter, Dept of Community Medicine, Fenner's, Gresham Road, Cambridge, England.