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Report on Irazu (Costa Rica) — March 1993


Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 3 (March 1993)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.

Irazu (Costa Rica) Fumarolic activity declines

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on Irazu (Costa Rica) (Venzke, E., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:3. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199303-345060


Costa Rica

9.979°N, 83.852°W; summit elev. 3436 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

Fumarolic activity in the N and NW portions of the crater decreased and the lake remained green. Lake temperature varied depending on the sampling site. ICE volcanologists measured 14°C at the surface, 17°C near the bottom, and 24°C near subaqueous fumaroles. UNA volcanologists measured 40°C near fumaroles and 24°C near the center of the lake. Lake level fluctuated 10-15 cm depending on rainfall, with smaller daily variations. Collapses continued from the E and SE crater walls.

Major fumaroles in the NW portion of the crater had temperatures of 91-92°C. No change was evident in the acidity or temperature of springs around the volcano. Dry-tilt measurements at the summit continued to indicate deflation through March. Areal dilatation has continued to decline, with decreases similar to those since September.

Geological Summary. The massive Irazú volcano in Costa Rica, immediately E of the capital city of San José, covers an area of 500 km2 and is vegetated to within a few hundred meters of its broad summit crater complex. At least 10 satellitic cones are located on its S flank. No lava effusion is known since the eruption of the Cervantes lava flows from S-flank vents about 14,000 years ago, and all known Holocene eruptions have been explosive. The focus of eruptions at the summit crater complex has migrated to the W towards the main crater, which contains a small lake. The first well-documented eruption occurred in 1723, and frequent explosive eruptions have occurred since. Ashfall from the last major eruption during 1963-65 caused significant disruption to San José and surrounding areas. Phreatic activity reported in 1994 may have been a landslide event from the fumarolic area on the NW summit (Fallas et al., 2018).

Information Contacts: G. Soto and R. Barquero, ICE; E. Fernández, J. Barquero, V. Barboza, T. Marino, R. Van Der Laat, F. de Obaldía, and R. Sáenz, OVSICORI.