Report on Aira (Japan) — June 1993
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 6 (June 1993)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.
Aira (Japan) Several quiet ash eruptions; no explosions for 99 days
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on Aira (Japan) (Venzke, E., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:6. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199306-282080
31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
A total of 13 non-explosive ash eruptions occurred . . . in June . . . . Explosive eruptions accompanying seismic and atmospheric shocks have not occurred between 8 April and 16 July (99 days). This is the longest explosion-free period since 1989, when 139 consecutive days (between April and August) were without explosions. The highest ash cloud of the month, on 1 June, rose 3,000 m above the summit. No earthquake swarms were recorded in June.
Geological Summary. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Information Contacts: JMA.