Report on Damavand (Iran) — September 1993
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 9 (September 1993)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.
Damavand (Iran) Fumarolic vent on the crater rim; sulfur deposits
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on Damavand (Iran) (Venzke, E., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:9. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199309-232010
35.951°N, 52.109°E; summit elev. 5670 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
A visit to the summit area . . . on 12 July 1993 revealed a small, powerful fumarolic vent on the S rim of the crater that was emitting SO2-rich gases at a temperature of ~50°C. Sulfur deposits also covered the surrounding slopes. The summit crater was ~150 m wide and 20 m deep, with a 40-m-diameter frozen lake in the bottom, surrounded by patches of snow. . . . there is no permanent glacier because of the dry climate. However, the upper slopes do contain scattered areas of hardened perennial snow (névés).
Geological Summary. The Damavand stratovolcano towers dramatically 70 km to the NE above Iran's capital city of Tehran and 70 km S of the Caspian Sea. It is the highest volcano in the Middle East. A younger cone has been constructed during the past 600,000 years over an older edifice, remnants of which were previously interpreted as a caldera wall. Flank vents are rare, and activity at the dominantly trachyandesite volcano has been concentrated at the summit vent, which has produced a series of radial lava flows. Lava effusion has dominated, pyroclastic activity has been limited, and the only major explosive event produced a welded ignimbrite about 280,000 years ago. The youngest activity has consisted of the eruption of a series of lava flows from the summit vent that cover the W side of the volcano. The youngest dated lava flows were emplaced about 7000 years ago. No historical eruptions are known, but hot springs are located on the flanks, and fumaroles are found at the summit crater.
Information Contacts: J. Sesiano, Univ de Genève.