Report on San Cristobal (Nicaragua) — September 1993
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 18, no. 9 (September 1993)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.
San Cristobal (Nicaragua) Large steam plume
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1993. Report on San Cristobal (Nicaragua) (Venzke, E., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 18:9. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199309-344020
12.702°N, 87.004°W; summit elev. 1745 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
A large steam plume was observed at the volcano each day during the first week of September. The plume was clearly visible at distances tens of kilometers from the vent, and apparently filled the entire crater.
Geological Summary. The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km W of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.
Information Contacts: Michael Conway and Andrew Macfarlane, Florida International Univ; Charles Connor, Southwest Research Institute; Oscar Leonel Urbina and Cristian Lugo, INETER.