Report on Galeras (Colombia) — August 1994
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 8 (August 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Galeras (Colombia) Long-period screw-type seismic events detected
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Galeras (Colombia). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:8. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199408-351080.
1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Long-period "screw-type" events, associated with fluid movements, appeared again on 9 August 1994. There were 18 of these events during 9-26 August, with a maximum of 2/day. These events are called "screws" because of the similarity on a seismograph record to the profile of a screw with a fine thread. This type of signal is significant at Galeras because it preceded five of the six eruptions between July 1992 and June 1993. After the 7 June 1993 eruption (18:6), 94 of these signals were recorded in July, August, September, October, and November 1993, and sporadically in January, March, and May 1994, without being followed by an eruption. However, the lack of eruptions following these occurrences does not decrease their importance. These signals, similar to those that preceded the 7 June 1993 eruption, were also the most monochromatic that have been seen, with frequencies of 2.6-3.2 Hz and durations of 20-120 seconds. These events occurred around the volcano at depths of <3 km. Some small-magnitude earthquakes were located NNE of the crater at a depth of 3-8 km; this source has remained active since the last swarm of screw-type signals between November and December 1993.
SO2 flux measurements taken by the mobile COSPEC were low. Deformation equipment indicated no variations; apparent changes at one tiltmeter were due to electronic problems.
Geologic Background. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.
Information Contacts: INGEOMINAS, Pasto.