Report on San Cristobal (Nicaragua) — September 1994
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 9 (September 1994)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.
San Cristobal (Nicaragua) Increased seismicity during March-July declines in August
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on San Cristobal (Nicaragua) (Venzke, E., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:9. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199409-344020.
12.702°N, 87.004°W; summit elev. 1745 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The number of high-frequency seismic events increased from 46 in March to 897 in July. The number decreased again in August and September, but there were large tremors. For an unspecified time interval prior to 21 August the gas plume extended several kilometers from the volcano.
Geologic Background. The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km W of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.
Information Contacts: H. Taleno, L. Urbina, C. Lugo, and O. Canales, INETER.