Report on Aira (Japan) — October 1994
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 10 (October 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Aira (Japan) Explosive eruptive activity continues but causes no damage
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Aira (Japan) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:10. Smithsonian Institution.
31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Explosive volcanism continued through October but caused no damage. There were 31 eruptions . . ., including 14 explosive ones. On 5 October a NOTAM . . . described eruptions at 0136 and 0447 that rose to 3.35 km. On the other hand, JMA reported that at 1628 on 6 October the "highest ash plume of October" rose to 3.3 km, so apparently there was relatively vigorous activity on both days. Volcanic earthquake swarms were detected 130 times, reaching a maximum amplitude of 2 µm. During October, a seismic station 2.3 km NW of Minamidake crater registered 862 distinct events. October ashfall collected at the Kagoshima Meteorological Station, 10 km W, measured 136 g/m2.
Geological Summary. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Information Contacts: JMA; [SAB].