Report on Galeras (Colombia) — December 1995
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 20, no. 11 (December 1995)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Galeras (Colombia) Fumarolic and seismic activity continue at low levels
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1995. Report on Galeras (Colombia) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 20:11. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199512-351080
1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Volcanic activity remained low during November and December. No significant surface changes were detected during this period, in agreement with electronic tiltmeter measurements on the E flank. Gas emission was concentrated in the W part of the crater, and the El Paisita, Las Chavas, La Joya, and Las Deformes fumaroles remained active. During 2-22 November there were temperature increases at Las Deformes and Las Chavas of 28 and 14°C, respectively. Correlation spectrometer measurements of the SO2 flux remained low (<100 metric tons/day).
There were a few small seismic events associated with fluid movement in November, and sporadic seismicity associated with rock fracturing 2-4 km NNE of the active crater. During December, high-frequency seismicity consisted of small events (M <2.6) concentrated in the seismogenic region 6 km NE of the crater. Local residents felt events on 4 and 29 December that were M 2.5 and 2.6, respectively. The first of these events was centered in the NE region at 5 km depth, and the second at 7 km SW of the crater at 8 km depth. Only three small long-period events were recorded.
Geological Summary. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.
Information Contacts: Pablo Chamorro, INGEOMINAS - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto, A.A. 1795, San Juan de Pasto, Narino, Colombia (URL: https://www2.sgc.gov.co/volcanes/index.html).