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Report on Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001) — May 1996

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 21, no. 5 (May 1996)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001) Lidar data from Virginia, Germany, and Cuba

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1996. Report on Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 21:5. Smithsonian Institution.



Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lidar data from Virginia, USA, again revealed the presence of a volcanic aerosol layer centered at about 22 km altitude in April and May 1996 (table 6), somewhat higher than the 18-19 km measured during August-December 1995 (Bulletin v. 20, no. 10, and table 6). Over Germany, the aerosol layer was concentrated around 15-20 km altitude during January-April 1996, consistent with measurements made during late 1995 (Bulletin v. 21, no. 2). Backscattering ratios continued to show a decreasing trend at Hampton, and remained stable at Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Data from Cuba during January-April 1996 were highly variable, but still comparable to late-1995 data (Bulletin v. 21, no. 2). The base of the aerosol layer was consistently around 15-17.5 km (dropping to 12.7-13.3 km in April), but the layer peak ranged from 18.1 up to 27.1 km. Backscattering ratios were also variable, with seven measurements showing the expected slow decrease to the 1.11-1.17 range, but with the other six being anomalously high in the 1.35-1.51 range.

Table 6. Lidar data from Virginia, Cuba, and Germany showing altitudes of aerosol layers; some layers have multiple peaks. Backscattering ratios from Virginia are for the ruby wavelength of 0.69 µm; those from Germany and Cuba are for the Nd-YAG wavelength of 0.53 µm, with equivalent ruby values in parentheses for data from Germany. The integrated value shows total backscatter, expressed in steradians-1, integrated over 300-m intervals from 16-33 km for Cuba and from the tropopause to 30 km at Hampton and Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Courtesy of Mary Osborn, Horst Jäger, and Rene Estevan.

DATE LAYER ALTITUDE (km) (peak) BACKSCATTERING RATIO BACKSCATTERING INTEGRATED
Hampton, Virginia (37.1°N, 76.3°W)
04 Dec 1995 13-25 (18.7) 1.22 1.05 x 10-4
25 Apr 1996 15-26 (22.4) 1.14 0.61 x 10-4
21 May 1996 15-28 (22.4) 1.18 0.64 x 10-4
31 May 1996 16-26 (22.0) 1.13 0.32 x 10-4
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (47.5°N, 11.0°E)
04 Jan 1996 10-32 (19.1) 1.15 (1.30) --
11 Jan 1996 09-31 (19.2) 1.14 (1.28) --
17 Jan 1996 10-30 (16.4) 1.13 (1.25) --
31 Jan 1996 10-28 (19.8) 1.12 (1.23) --
06 Feb 1996 09-28 (15.7) 1.11 (1.21) --
23 Feb 1996 10-27 (14.7) 1.13 (1.25) --
27 Feb 1996 10-27 (18.2) 1.10 (1.20) --
05 Mar 1996 09-31 (17.9) 1.13 (1.25) --
05 Mar 1996 PSC peak at 19.8 -- --
07 Mar 1996 09-28 (17.9) 1.14 (1.27) --
14 Mar 1996 10-31 (15.8) 1.15 (1.29) --
23 Mar 1996 12-28 (18.0) 1.13 (1.25) --
15 Apr 1996 10-27 (17.2) 1.12 (1.24) --
Camaguey, Cuba (21.2°N, 77.5°W)
19 Jan 1996 14.8 (19.9) 1.17 0.55 x 10-4
24 Jan 1996 15.1 (21.7) 1.08 0.12 x 10-4
29 Jan 1996 15.1 (18.7) 1.58 4.90 x 10-4
04 Feb 1996 15.4 (23.5) 1.35 1.40 x 10-4
09 Feb 1996 17.2 (27.1) 1.11 0.26 x 10-4
15 Feb 1996 17.5 (22.3) 1.51 1.00 x 10-4
15 Feb 1996 17.5 (23.8) 1.48 --
24 Feb 1996 17.2 (25.6) 1.11 0.27 x 10-4
02 Mar 1996 16.9 (23.8) 1.16 0.13 x 10-4
18 Mar 1996 15.1 (18.1) 1.17 0.66 x 10-4
31 Mar 1996 15.7 (21.4) 1.16 0.69 x 10-4
05 Apr 1996 12.7 (23.8) 1.36 3.20 x 10-4
12 Apr 1996 13.3 (19.4) 1.27 0.66 x 10-4

Information Contacts: Mary Osborn, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), Hampton VA 23665, USA; Horst Jäger, Fraunhofer -- Institut für Atmosphärische Umweltforschung, Kreuzeckbahnstrasse 19, D-8100 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany; Rene Estevan and Juan Carlos Antuña, Centro Meteorologico de Camagüey, Apartado 134, Camagüey 70100, Cuba [J.C.A is presently at Univ. Maryland, Dept. of Meteorology, College Park, MD 20742 USA];