Report on Llaima (Chile) — March 1997
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 22, no. 3 (March 1997)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Llaima (Chile) Fumarolic activity at summit vent
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1997. Report on Llaima (Chile) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 22:3. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199703-357110.
38.692°S, 71.729°W; summit elev. 3125 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
A late-March overflight made after a prolonged dry season enabled scientists to see Llaima with relatively low snow levels. The main vent, in the SE part of the summit crater, emitted a bluish gas in poorly defined pulses at intervals of ~45 seconds. Similar pulses observed in mid-March took place at intervals of ~100 seconds.
The upper part of the main crater wall in the NW sector and small areas within the Pichillaima scar E of the main crater gave off diffuse steam emissions. A grayish plume at summit height was traceable for a few tens of kilometers to the ESE.
Geologic Background. Llaima, one of Chile's largest and most active volcanoes, contains two main historically active craters, one at the summit and the other, Pichillaima, to the SE. The massive, dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic, stratovolcano has a volume of 400 km3. A Holocene edifice built primarily of accumulated lava flows was constructed over an 8-km-wide caldera that formed about 13,200 years ago, following the eruption of the 24 km3 Curacautín Ignimbrite. More than 40 scoria cones dot the volcano's flanks. Following the end of an explosive stage about 7200 years ago, construction of the present edifice began, characterized by Strombolian, Hawaiian, and infrequent subplinian eruptions. Frequent moderate explosive eruptions with occasional lava flows have been recorded since the 17th century.
Information Contacts: Jose Antonio Naranjo, Servicio Nacional de Geología e Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Av. Santa María 0104, Casilla 10465, Santiago, Chile; Hugo Moreno Roa, Observatorío Volcanogía de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Manantial 1710-Carmino del Alba, Temuco, Chile; Simon R. Young, British Geological Survey (BGS), Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, United Kingdom.