Report on Poas (Costa Rica) — March 2000
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 25, no. 3 (March 2000)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Poas (Costa Rica) Conspicuous plumes and abundant low-frequency earthquakes in late 1999
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2000. Report on Poas (Costa Rica) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 25:3. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN200003-345040.
10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Comparative quiet continued at Poás; however, in addition to the fumarolic degassing often seen, seismicity was relatively high during the reporting period, June 1999-January 2000, when low-frequency earthquakes typically registered over 4,000 times per month (table 9). For comparison, a relative high in 1999 occurred in May when low-frequency events occurred ~1,400 times, and during a high in January 1998, when there were over 2,500 events. On 18 July 1999 an MR 3.1 earthquake occurred with 6 km focal depth and an epicenter 5 km NW of the active crater.
|Month||Low-frequency earthquakes||Mid-frequency earthquakes||Total earthquakes||Crater lake temperature||Surface elevation change of crater lake|
|Jul 1999||2,996||64||3,061||32°C||-47 cm|
|Aug 1999||4,548||184||4,736||37°C||-32 cm|
|Nov 1999||4,142||221||4,393||33°C||101 cm|
|Dec 1999||4,278||405||4,679||35°C||156 cm|
|Jan 2000||--||--||low||40°C||~140 cm|
Tremor, which was seldom reported in 1999, took place for less than about 0.5 hours a day during October-November 1999. In contrast, tremor averaged only 0.1 hours a day during December 1999. In contrast, tremor durations of 20 to 70 hours were common in early 1998. Also appearing in the month of October 1999 were 5 unusual low-frequency events in conjunction with tremor; these low-frequency earthquakes had periods of 40-175 seconds.
During August -October, the pyroclastic cone's degassing led to unusually high plumes reaching 0.7 to 2 km above the crater floor. December plume heights ranged between 0.7 and 1 km. Some of the hottest temperatures were measured near the pyroclastic cone: up to 95°C during December-January and often over 92°C when reported during other months in late 1999.
Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.
Information Contacts: E. Fernandez, E. Duarte, V. Barboza, R. Sáenz, E. Malavassi, R. Van der Laat, T. Marino, J. Barquero, and E. Hernández, Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica.