Report on Cleveland (United States) — April 2001
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 26, no. 4 (April 2001)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Cleveland (United States) Further eruptions and ash plumes during March 2001
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2001. Report on Cleveland (United States) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 26:4. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN200104-311240.
52.825°N, 169.944°W; summit elev. 1730 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
As predicted in February 2001 (BGVN 26:01) by staff at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cleveland erupted again, sending up noteworthy plumes on both 11 and 19 March. The 11 March event produced an ash plume that reached a height of ~4.4-5.9 km above Cleveland's summit (figure 3). On 19 March, AVO detected an explosive eruption on satellite imagery that began at ~1430. According to images taken at 1830, the ash cloud was V-shaped with one portion extending 185 km to the E and the other extending ~200 km to the SE (figure 4). The National Weather Service estimated the top of the cloud to be at ~9.7 km altitude. At about 1900, an observer in Nikolski, ~70 km to the E of the volcano, reported an intense haze resulting from the ash that extended to the SE, but saw no local ashfall.
|Figure 3. Color composite of LandSat images from the 11 March 2001 Cleveland eruption. The white outline shows the position of Chuginadak Island, hidden beneath the ash. Courtesy of Dave Schneider (AVO, USGS).|
|Figure 4. Sketch map illustrating ash area from Cleveland as of 2200 on 19 March 2001 (0600 on 20 March 2001 UTC). After an image by NOAA.|
The Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) issued advisories for both eruptions based on information from GOES-10 infrared and multi-spectral imagery (figure 4). No ash was detected in satellite imagery reported in the subsequent advisory issued at 0500 on 20 March; the ash from the eruption had dissipated.
Volcanic unrest continued at Cleveland through 4 May. Pulses of volcanic tremor continued to be detected by an AVO seismic network 230 km to the E of the volcano. AVO personnel installed a temporary seismic-recording instrument at Nikolski in an attempt to verify that the source of the tremor was Cleveland. AVO had received no reports of significant volcanic activity from either pilots, nearby residents, or satellite remote sensors since the last eruption on 19 March.
Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus, Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 it produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.
Information Contacts: Tom Miller and Dave Schneider, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Washington, DC, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/).