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Report on Ijen (Indonesia) — November 2002


Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 27, no. 11 (November 2002)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Ijen (Indonesia) Above-background seismicity through at least 8 December 2002

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2002. Report on Ijen (Indonesia) (Wunderman, R., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 27:11. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN200211-263350



8.058°S, 114.242°E; summit elev. 2769 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)

During 9 September through at least 8 December 2002 at Ijen, activity was above background levels. Seismicity was dominated by shallow volcanic (B-type) and tectonic earthquakes (table 5). During the week of 14-20 October, 1 deep-volcanic (A-type) earthquake was registered. Continuous tremor occurred, typically with a maximum amplitude of 0.5-3 mm.

Table 5. Earthquakes reported at Ijen during 9 September-8 December 2002. Courtesy VSI.

Date Shallow volcanic (B-type) Tectonic
09 Sep-15 Sep 2002 51 4
16 Sep-22 Sep 2002 72 5
23 Sep-29 Sep 2002 71 6
30 Sep-06 Oct 2002 67 5
07 Oct-13 Oct 2002 48 6
14 Oct-20 Oct 2002 96 2
21 Oct-27 Oct 2002 28 2
28 Oct-03 Nov 2002 73 2
04 Nov-10 Nov 2002 29 1
11 Nov-18 Nov 2002 29 17
02 Dec-08 Dec 2002 3 1

During 2-8 December VSI reported that tremor had a maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes of 0.5-12 mm. Throughout the report period, a "white-thin ash plume" [steam plume] was reported to rise 50-100 m above the volcano. Ijen remained at Alert Level 2.

Geological Summary. The Ijen volcano complex at the eastern end of Java consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes constructed within the 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The north caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the rim was buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi, which forms the high point of the complex. Immediately west of the Gunung Merapi stratovolcano is the historically active Kawah Ijen crater, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid lake. Kawah Ijen is the site of a labor-intensive mining operation in which baskets of sulfur are hand-carried from the crater floor. Many other post-caldera cones and craters are located within the caldera or along its rim. The largest concentration of cones forms an E-W zone across the southern side of the caldera. Coffee plantations cover much of the caldera floor; nearby waterfalls and hot springs are tourist destinations.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).