Report on Nyamuragira (DR Congo) — November 2017
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 42, no. 11 (November 2017)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke. Edited by A. Elizabeth Crafford.
Nyamuragira (DR Congo) Thermal activity decreases and ends in May 2017
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2017. Report on Nyamuragira (DR Congo) (Crafford, A.E., and Venzke, E., eds.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 42:11. Smithsonian Institution.
1.408°S, 29.2°E; summit elev. 3058 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is part of the western branch of the East African Rift System. Nyamuragira (or Nyamulagira), a high-potassium basaltic shield volcano on the W edge of VVP, includes a lava field that covers over 1,100 km2 and contains more than 100 flank cones in addition to a large central crater (see figure 54, BGVN 40:01). A large lava lake that had been active for many years emptied from the central crater in 1938. Numerous flank eruptions have been observed since that time, the most recent during November 2011-March 2012 on the NE flank. This was followed by a period of degassing with SO2-rich plumes, but no observed thermal activity, from April 2012 through April 2014. Lava fountains at the central crater in July 2014 signaled the return of a lava lake, which was confirmed in November 2014. The lake lasted through April 2016 when its thermal signal abruptly disappeared (see figure 62, BGVN 42:06).
Thermal activity suggesting reappearance of the lava lake began again in early November 2016, and strengthened in both frequency and magnitude into early January 2017, continuing with a strong signal through April 2017 before tapering off during May 2017. No further activity was reported through November 2017. Ground-based observations are scarce due to the unstable political climate, but occasional information is available from the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), MONUSCO (the United Nations Organization working in the area), geoscientists who study Nyamuragira, and travelers who visit the site. The most consistent data comes from satellite: thermal data from the MODIS instrument processed by the MODVOLC and MIROVA systems, SO2 data from the AURA instrument on NASA's OMI satellite, and NASA Earth Observatory images from a variety of satellites.
Thermal MODIS data indicated that a renewed period of activity began in late November 2016 after a period of quiescence since mid-May 2016. The first MODVOLC alert pixels appeared on 27 November. They were intermittent during December, but increased significantly during January-April 2017, with 30-50 alert pixels each month. They stopped abruptly on 2 May 2017. The MIROVA thermal anomaly graph shows a similar pattern of increasing thermal values from January through April 2017, with both the frequency and intensity tapering off during May 2017 (figure 69). No thermal anomalies were reported within 5 km of the summit from June through November 2017.
During the period from December 2016 to April 2017 thermal anomalies were relatively high, but there were no reported SO2 anomalies from the OMI satellite instrument. This is in contrast with the period from April 2014-April 2016 when both SO2 values and thermal anomaly values were high. Very little ground-based data is available to confirm the eruptive activity of 2017. A photograph from an Instagram user of an image reported as Nyamuragira on 26 January 2017 shows the lava lake at the bottom of the summit crater (figure 70). Bubbling lava from the crater was photographed by Charley Kasereka on 11 March 2017 (see figure 66, BGVN 42:06). An image captured in May 2017 shows steam at the summit crater and lava flows around the caldera, with Nyiragongo in the background (figure 71). A photograph posted 16 September 2017 shows volcanologist Dario Tedesco on the crater rim surrounded by plumes of steam (figure 72).
|Figure 70. Photo of the active lava lake in the summit crater of Nyamuragira on 26 January 2017. Courtesy of Tim Best Direct (posted on Instagram).|
|Figure 72. Thick steam plumes rise from the crater of Nyamuragira as volcanologist Dario Tedesco collects samples in this photo posted on 18 September 2017. Courtesy of Vincent Tremeau (posted on Instagram).|
Geologic Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with the adjacent steep-sided Nyiragongo to the SW. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.
Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Goma, North Kivu, DR Congo (URL: https://www.facebook.com/Observatoire-Volcanologique-de-Goma-OVG-180016145663568/); Virunga Volcanoes, managed by a Belgian-Luxembourgian (BeLux) scientific consortium mainly coordinated by the Royal Museum for Central Africa, the European Center for Geodynamics and Seismology and the National Museum of Natural History of Luxembourg (URL: http://www.virunga-volcanoes.org/); Vincent Tremeau, Instagram user vtremeau (URL: https://www.instagram.com/p/BZMGqX5Bhwl/); Charly Kasereka, Instagram user charlykasereka (URL: https://www.instagram.com/charlykasereka/); Tropic Air Kenya, Instagram user tropicairkenya (URL: https://www.instagram.com/p/BUXbNzjlh4Q/); Tim Best Direct, Instagram user timbestdirect (URL: https://www.instagram.com/p/BPvUgL9BfaX/).