Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — August 2018
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 43, no. 8 (August 2018)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke. Report research and preparation by: Sara Arav-Piper.
Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Intermittent moderate gas, steam, and ash emissions; no ash seen after 15 June 2018
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2018. Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia). In: Venzke, E. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 43:8. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN201808-300260.
56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The current eruptive period at Klyuchevskoy began in late August 2015 (BGVN 39:10). Lava effusion ended in early November 2016 (BGVN 42:04), but explosive activity continued to be observed through February 2018 (BGVN 43:05). From mid-February through mid-August 2018 moderate to weak gas and steam plumes were observed (figure 29), but no ash plumes were reported after 15 June 2018 (figure 29). The Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) is responsible for monitoring, and is the primary source of information. The Aviation Color Code was lowered from Orange to Yellow during this reporting period.
|Figure 29. Fumarolic plume rising from the summit of Klyuchevskoy, 15 April 2018. Courtesy of Yu. Demyanchuk (IVS FEB RAS, KVERT).|
The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Yellow by KVERT on 9 February. On 18 February an ash plume that rose to 5.2 km in altitude was reported by the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). Moderate gas and steam activity was reported on 25 and 29 April, and 2 May 2018. During 7-8 and 10 May KVERT reported that gas, steam, and ash plumes rose to 5.0-5.5 km altitude and extended to 340 km SE; subsequently the ACC was raised back to Orange. Explosions were reported on 14 May with accompanying ash plumes that rose to 10.5 km in altitude. The ash clouds lingered around Klyuchevskoy and surrounding volcanoes for about eight hours before gradually dissipating. Nighttime summit incandescence and a hot avalanche was observed. A diffuse ash plume was reported by KVERT on 6 June that extended 12 km to the W. Another ash plume was visible on 15 June, but decreasing activity resulted in the ACC being lowered to Yellow again on 29 June. Only moderate gas and steam activity was noted through mid-August.
A thermal anomaly was reported over Klyuchevskoy approximately 16 times during this reporting period in February, April, May, June, and August 2018. The number of MIROVA thermal anomalies detected increased in the first half of January 2018, with decreasing and intermittent low-intensity detections in subsequent months (figure 30).
|Figure 30. MODIS thermal anomalies identified in the MIROVA system, plotted as log radiative power for the year ending 24 August 2018. Courtesy of MIROVA.|
Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.
Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/).