Report on Krafla (Iceland) — June 1977
Natural Science Event Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 6 (June 1977)
Managing Editor: David Squires.
Krafla (Iceland) Steady inflation as seismicity continues to decrease
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1977. Report on Krafla (Iceland) (Squires, D., ed.). Natural Science Event Bulletin, 2:6. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.NSEB197706-373080
65.715°N, 16.728°W; summit elev. 800 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Inflation has continued at a uniform rate. Seismicity has declined from 400-1,000 earthquakes per day in late May to 100-150/day in late June. All earthquakes have been located S of the caldera, where maximum deformation occurred during the 27 April deflation event.
Geological Summary. The Krafla central volcano, located NE of Myvatn lake, is a topographically indistinct 10-km-wide caldera that is cut by a N-S-trending fissure system. Eruption of a rhyolitic welded tuff about 100,000 years ago was associated with formation of the caldera. Krafla has been the source of many rifting and eruptive events during the Holocene, including two in historical time, during 1724-29 and 1975-84. The prominent Hverfjall and Ludent tuff rings east of Myvatn were erupted along the 100-km-long fissure system, which extends as far as the north coast of Iceland. Iceland's renowned Myvatn lake formed during the eruption of the older Laxarhraun lava flow from the Ketildyngja shield volcano of the Fremrinamur volcanic system about 3800 years before present (BP); its present shape is constrained by the roughly 2000 years BP younger Laxarhraun lava flow from the Krafla volcanic system. The abundant pseudocraters that form a prominent part of the Myvatn landscape were created when the younger Laxarhraun lava flow entered the lake.
Information Contacts: G. Sigvaldason, NVI.