Report on Aira (Japan) — January 1979
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 4, no. 1 (January 1979)
Managing Editor: David Squires.
Aira (Japan) Number of explosions increase; lapilli cracks airplane windows
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1979. Report on Aira (Japan) (Squires, D., ed.). Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 4:1. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN197901-282080
31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Eleven explosions from the summit crater of Minami-dake were recorded in December. The number of explosions in 1978 was 231, little changed from 223 in 1977. Lapilli ejected on 4 December cracked 2 windshields of All Nippon Airways airplanes. Similar damage to aircraft above Sakura-jima occurred 8 April 1975 and 25 December 1977.
Geological Summary. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.