Report on Lokon-Empung (Indonesia) — September 1986
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 11, no. 9 (September 1986)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Lokon-Empung (Indonesia) Explosions eject breadcrust bombs
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1986. Report on Lokon-Empung (Indonesia). In: McClelland, L. (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 11:9. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN198609-266100.
1.358°N, 124.792°E; summit elev. 1580 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
"Explosions continued almost daily through September, ejecting tephra that contained juvenile ballistic fragments (breadcrust bombs) to several hundred meters above the vent on 4, 9, and 11 September."
Geologic Background. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks (whose summits are only 2 km apart), has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano to the NE has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred. A ridge extending WNW from Lokon includes Tatawiran and Tetempangan peak, 3 km away.
Information Contacts: L. Pardyanto, Olas, Kaswanda, Suratman, A. Sudradjat, and T. Casadevall, VSI.