Report on St. Helens (United States) — January 1987
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 12, no. 1 (January 1987)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
St. Helens (United States) Background seismicity, deformation, SO2 emission
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1987. Report on St. Helens (United States). In: McClelland, L. (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 12:1. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN198701-321050.
46.2°N, 122.18°W; summit elev. 2549 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Seismicity, rates of ground deformation in the crater, and gas discharge remained at background levels throughout January. SO2 discharge was 35 plus or minus 10 t/d on 8 January, 30 plus or minus 5 t/d on 15 January, and 15 plus or minus 5 t/d on 21 January. There were no ash emissions or explosions from the lava dome.
Geologic Background. Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. Prior to 2200 years ago, tephra, lava domes, and pyroclastic flows were erupted, forming the older St. Helens edifice, but few lava flows extended beyond the base of the volcano. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the north flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.
Information Contacts: D. Swanson and J.Sutton, CVO.