Report on Kanlaon (Philippines) — November 1989
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 14, no. 11 (November 1989)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Kanlaon (Philippines) Ash ejections decline
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1989. Report on Kanlaon (Philippines) (McClelland, L., ed.). Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 14:11. Smithsonian Institution.
10.412°N, 123.132°E; summit elev. 2435 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Mild ash ejections occurred almost daily at Canlaon in the 5 weeks since eruptive activity began on 25 October at 1230. A total of 79 ash ejection episodes have been documented, the most recent on 1 December from 0515 to 0737. Plumes generally reached 200-1200 m above the summit (the highest on 3 November) and were dispersed as far as 8-10 km S. The ash plumes emitted during activity 15-17 November and 1 December covered ~80% of the crater area, compared to 100% for the larger eruptive episodes. Ground deformation measurements showed slight inflation of the edifice a few hours before ash ejections, most of which were accompanied by small-amplitude explosion earthquakes and short-duration harmonic tremor. Between eruptive episodes, moderate amounts of white steam covered ~20-40% of the crater, and seismic levels fell to 5-10 volcanic events/day. Activity remained weak and PHIVOLCS did not recommend evacuation.
As of 13 December, ash plume heights and steam volume had decreased, but not to pre-eruptive levels. Average plume dispersals had also decreased from 0.5-1 km to 50-100 m from the summit. PHIVOLCS noted that although activity appeared to be waning, the volcano's status remained abnormal.
Geological Summary. Kanlaon volcano (also spelled Canlaon), the most active of the central Philippines, forms the highest point on the island of Negros. The massive andesitic stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. The largest debris avalanche known in the Philippines traveled 33 km SW from Kanlaon. The summit contains a 2-km-wide, elongated northern caldera with a crater lake and a smaller, but higher, historically active vent, Lugud crater, to the south. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.
Information Contacts: PHIVOLCS.