Report on Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) — 16 March-22 March 2011
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 16 March-22 March 2011
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2011. Report on Tengger Caldera (Indonesia). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 16 March-22 March 2011. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
7.942°S, 112.95°E; summit elev. 2329 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
CVGHM reported that on 10 March ash from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone fell in areas to the E and NE, including in the Probolinggo district (35 km NE). During 18-20 March gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted SE. Incandescent material was ejected 300 m above the crater and landed up to 500 m away. Roaring and booming noises were also noted. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km radius of the active crater.
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-20 March ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 27-150 km NW, SW, and S.
Geologic Background. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.