Report on Popocatepetl (Mexico) — 28 September-4 October 2016
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
28 September-4 October 2016
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2016. Report on Popocatepetl (Mexico). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 28 September-4 October 2016. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Each day during 28 September-4 October CENAPRED reported 125-389 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatépetl. Cloud cover often prevented observations, though gas-and-steam plumes were visible daily. Crater incandescence was visible on some nights. An explosion at 0929 on 29 September produced a plume that drifted NW. Explosions were also detected at 1813 on 30 September, 1300 on 3 October, and 0231 and 0647 on 4 October. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Geological Summary. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.