Report on Etna (Italy) — 4 March-10 March 2020
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 4 March-10 March 2020
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2020. Report on Etna (Italy). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 4 March-10 March 2020. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
INGV reported continuing eruptive activity at Etna’s Voragine Crater (VOR), New Southeast Crater (NSEC), and Northeast Crater (NEC) during 24 February-1 March. Strombolian explosions from the vent at the top of the cone in VOR crater ejected pieces of lava sometimes 150-200 m above the vent. Ash plumes rose from the vent and rapidly dissipated. Strombolian activity from a vent at the base of the N flank of the cone was observed on 29 February. Lava continued to effuse from the vent on top of a building lava mound on the S flank of the cone and flow into the adjacent Bocca Nuova Crater. Activity at NEC was characterized by discontinuous Strombolian activity and periodic emissions of very diffuse ash plumes. During 24-25 February observers noted continuous diffuse ash emissions at NSEC, originating from a cone in the saddle area.
Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.