Report on Pacaya (Guatemala) — 7 October-13 October 2020
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 October-13 October 2020
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2020. Report on Pacaya (Guatemala). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 7 October-13 October 2020. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
14.382°N, 90.601°W; summit elev. 2569 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
INSIVUMEH reported that Strombolian activity and lava effusion continued at Pacaya during 7-13 October. Explosions from the cone in Mackenney Crater intensified on 8 October, ejecting material 200-300 m above the vent. At least four lava flows were active on the N and E flanks and all were 250-300 m long. By the next day three lava flows, on the NE, N, and W flanks were 200-400 m long. During 9-13 October explosions ejected material as high as 150 m. Lava flows were periodically active on NE, N, and W flanks, traveling 100-300 m.
Geologic Background. Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. This complex basaltic volcano was constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the ancestral Pacaya Viejo and Cerro Grande stratovolcanoes and the currently active Mackenney stratovolcano. Collapse of Pacaya Viejo between 600 and 1500 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (Mackenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of Mackenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the growing young stratovolcano.