Report on Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — 8 April-14 April 2009
Smithsonian Institution / US Geological Survey
Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 8 April-14 April 2009
Managing Editor: Sally Sennert.
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2009. Report on Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) (Sennert, S, ed.). Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 8 April-14 April 2009. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
Papua New Guinea
4.2459°S, 152.1937°E; summit elev. 688 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
RVO reported that during 3-9 April white and gray plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1 km above the crater. Plumes drifted SE and NW. Occasionally, incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night and roaring noises were reported. Light ashfall was reported in Kokopo, about 20 km SE. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted up to 75 km NW. On 14 April, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and up to 120 km NW.
Geological Summary. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the asymmetrical shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1,400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7,100 years ago is thought to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the N and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and W caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.