Report on Kilauea (United States) — 5 September-11 September 2012
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
5 September-11 September 2012
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2012. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5 September-11 September 2012. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 5-11 September HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of spatter and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.
On 4 September HVO geologists observed the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor and noted lava ponds in the E and S pits, with the N pit being fully crusted over. During 5-11 September glow emanated from the E and S pit craters; lava in the N pit was crusted, but was periodically incandescent on the W edge. A collapse in the roof of the lava tube at the base of the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o also continued to glow. Lava flows were active above and at the top of the pali. On 11 September a geologist confirmed that lava flows above the pali had advanced to the top of the abandoned Royal Gardens subdivision.
Geological Summary. Kilauea overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano in the island of Hawaii. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation since 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity at Halemaumau crater in the summit caldera until 1924. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1,500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones, which extend to the ocean in both directions. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. The long-term eruption from the East rift zone between 1983 and 2018 produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroyed hundreds of houses, and added new coastline.